”Cheque” or “Check” is a negotiable instrument that can be further present in general as a document that is generated in a bank to demand payment from the account of the Account Holder. Section 13 of Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (Act no. 26 of 1881) states that a negotiable instrument is a promissory note, bill of exchange or a cheque payable either to the payee or to a bearer and Section 6 of this Act clearly defines a cheque as a bill of exchange drawn on a particular banker, and not convey to be due otherwise than on-demand.
The demand for money is clearly from the before deposited money in that account. A cheque to be passed from the bank must contain an unlimited order from the drawer which directs a bank to pay the money. Moreover, the money required on the Cheque must be present in the account of the signatory party.
The starting of the Cheque is from the bank due to demand for the easy deal and to neglect the risk of carrying more amount of money. Secondly, the well-respected and large organizations are busy in so many areas and need a deal of money on each level, so to clear the deal it has to be enforced. All the rules in respect of money dealing i.e., by cheque or cash in proper record keep are preserved by the RBI which acts as control body. Depending upon many needs in bank channel RBI has tools many changes from time to time.
From the time of the early Persian kingdom, the use of cheques is visible in the world, and in India, it win from the Mauryan era, where they used to topic an order or “adesh” to the banker to pay a third person. It was the same as the concept of a bill of exchange as we are close in the modern days.
In the Roman days, the bankers were commanded by their person to pay only to some of the rich payees who are followed by some promissory note issued by the person or in exchange for some goods, ideally gold. The cheque system was also well-liked among the Arabic shares and was called “saqa”. This is well-liked was due to the same concept as of today i.e., to avoid the risk of carrying more amount of money. At that timeshare used to move long space from one part of the state to another part for business and trading motive and to save their riches from dacoity, use of cheque or “saqa” was in mode amongst them.
In the 17th century, the bill of exchange was changed and a prototype of the cheque was developed and called “drawn notes” which were handwritten. However, in the year 1717, the Bank of England issued a printed form of a cheque which was starting meant for corporate areas but soon after they were used on private level banking.
In the year 1770 cheque was initiated in India by the Bank of Hindustan soon after its start at Kolkata (that time Calcutta) by the European management.
Today’s Scenario In India, investigating the company as well as some nationalized and personal banks enter several forged acts happen during the approval of cheques at the cash counters. The absence of security quality and simple aspects of cheques makes any person unsafe to fraud. It can be used to thug a person by the use of begun and there are new procedures such as advanced scanning- printing equipment. In, many cases of cheque fraud are related to the event of interpolation while in other same cases it is seen that the person study the complete cheque and copy it by using developed printers that can generate all complete copy of the actual cheque. However, in the year 2013, RBI determine to tool the more awaited Cheque Truncation Scheme (CTS). According to this, along with other procedural banking procedures, a bank customer will be powerless to use their old security featureless cheques.
Security features are the main quality which is included in a small paper to differ it from the other paper and make that small paper verify like money, banknotes, passports, stamp papers, Voter ID, cheques, etc. This quality plays a great role in conserving fake of many papers which carry money- making use as well as the status of state. So, these qualities are required to be right in terms of shape and size as well as its position on the direct point of the paper.
Not all but some qualities are required to be publicly known so that even a person can recognize the paper on their own and if need the same can be verified again by the worried power. However, the making point of the paper should be kept private to conserve the losses of the consumer and the bank.
Security Features on a Cheque
The study of many nationalized and private bank’s cheques contains the security Features:
1. Cheque design
2. Color system
3. Uniform dimensions
4. Uniform paper quality
6. Ultra Violet light features
7. Pantographic image
8. Microscopic features.
Every bank, whether govt. or private, issues its cheques provide with such mark sign from which a person can recognize which bank the specific cheque belongs. The main role in the confirmation of the identity of bank cheque is played simply by Bank name, Branch address & code, Bank logo, and many times holograms.
When an actual cheque is used with normal water, the color dissolves and gives a bleeding result. The inks used in printing cheques are water-soluble. When the uncovered part of the cheque was seen under the UV light it show the blue fluorescence which was however of less intensity. This is a common feature of both, old as well as new cheques. Hence, the use of this technique cannot explain the genuineness of a cheque.
Acc. to RBI, the cheque has a limited size which is the fix for all bank cheques. The length of the cheque is 8.0 ± 0.2 inches (≈ 202 mm) and the width is 3.66 ± 0.2 inches (≈ 92 mm). The diagonal length is 8.8 ± 0.2 inches (≈ 220 mm). The length of the Amount box is 1.55 inches (≈ 39 mm) and the width is 0.34 inches (≈ 8.5 mm).
Uniform paper quality
The paper used for the making of cheques is carbonless and UV dull, i.e., it does not shine under UV light. The paper is known as MICR cheque paper. They can protect any changes done in a cheque with the help of chemical erasures like acids, alkalis, or any organic or inorganic solvents.
Old cheques carry no watermarks and if some of them which were present, they were normally logos of paper making only. In the new cheques, watermarks are prominently seen and they are observed under the transmitted light. These watermarks represent the bank’s name or logo. These watermarks are seen in their straightway of writing order, i.e., left to right.
Ultra Violet light features
New cheques are provided with UV quality and each bank has its pattern, which is seen under the UV light due to fluorescence. These designs can be the bank’s logo, bank’s name, Rupee column, and the micro lettering at the back of the cheque. Just like money, cheques can easily be recognized under the UV light for checking their genuineness.
Every cheque has an individual rectangular picture on the left side at the lower box of the account number which is called a Pantographic Image. This image contains criss-cross lines in a different pattern which is based on the concept of Steganography.
This is an anti-copying quality. If a cheque is copied by any photocopy machine it will generate a copy showing “VOID” or “COPY” inside the pantographic image.
The pantographic image security quality has its hold the limitation. Thus the motive of giving such security quality by RBI gets defeated.
It is very crucial to mention that in a cheque, the mark of the pay column, date columns, Rupee column, or amount box is not bare simple lines but they are events of micro printing, which is the name of the bank. The microprinting is seen by the magnification.
Micro-printings are also present on the back of the cheque. It is become observed to naked eyes or with a simple magnifying glass.
For the security of cheques, some other quality may be included by the bank such as:
1. Bar code or 2D- Quick Response (QR) code
It is an easy way to make a cheque to protect from fraud. Every cheque should be given its private code. On the starting page as well as in the parts of the checkbook. Every code have such information ;
✔ Account Holder’s Name
✔ Account Number
✔ Bank’s Name
✔ Branch Code
✔ Cheque Number
They are 3D images that can be included in a cheque at its making stage by which a person can find out the original cheque. It is simple to introduce and is also cost-effective in nature. It may consist of the name of the bank.
3. Security Thread
Security thread may be found to each cheque which should consist of the bank’s name or anything want by that bank. It may be included in cheques that are used in the deal such as in the current account.
4. Security Fibres
Security fibers may be included to make the cheque more preserve from fraud. It shines under UV light.
5. Separate Box System
No bank can receive a cheque having changed or add more than the tolerable limit.
The back of boxes where the amount is shown should be made in such a way that it could find any changes done to it. This is to save the cheque from any changes.
Also Read: Security features of Indian Currency
In a indicative govt. voting often implies election a order for electorate to choose the the person for office. A vote is an single act of voting by which he or she shows bear or preferences for sure motions of some person, a selection of person. Voting process takes place mainly at polling booths. Voting is one of the advantage of living in a democracy. It give recognization of their decision and choices. In India, we have the right to vote after 18 years of achievement. Hence, for voting a voter ID is very essential.
Voter ID card or Electors Photo Identity Card [EPIC] is a recognition card provide by the Election Commission to all qualified voters, to allow voter recognition on election day. All those who are already apply in the voter list is allow to collect a voter ID card. You should take an accept identity proof paper. If you are taking with a voter ID card, you have to carry it on the day of voting as an identity proof. If you do not own a voter ID card, you can carry any one of the identity proof paper on election day. The voter ID card is helpful only as a voter recognition paper at polling booths on election day. So, it remains valid even if you have to alter your address from one area to another within the same city, one city to others within the same state or even from one state to other.
• The cover is to save anyone from alters data on the card.
• A fingerprint of the voter on the card as well as on the form used to generate the voters list.
• A picture of the voter.
• The signature of the voter.
• Background printing in colors others than black to deter fraud.
• A voter recognition number resemblance to the number on the voter registration form, as a means of stop the stock of forms and related cards.
• The address of the voter, voter recognition cards have sometimes play an important role to enhance the honesty and hence the legitimacy of the electoral procedure. In fix areas where cards have a more number of security quality, they have become the successful form of person recognition.
• Other areas already have other person recognition and there is no need for the election power to identical attempt.
• It is a good form of recognition.
• It gives as acceptance that the voter is properly apply.
• It contains many identifying quality to give more words that the voter is who he or she declares to be.
• It may be mark when the voter has to get a ballot saves several voting.
• It can be draw to be fit for an electorate with a low education rate.
• It can be a successful form of identifying where some voters have no permanent address.
• It gives voting in areas where a voter may not be known. It can be issued together with voter education matter.
• Gilbart, James William (1828). A practical treatise on Banking, containing an account of the London and County Banks .A view of Joint Stock Banks, and the Branch Banks of the Bank of England, etc (2nd ed.). London p.p.115.
• Durant, Will (1944). Caesar and Christ: A history of Roman civilization and Christianity from their beginnings to A.D. 325. The story of civilization. 3. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 749.
• Glubb, John Bagot (1988), A Short History Of The Arab Peoples, Dorset Press, p. 105.