Sources:“A Closer Look On Forensic Science“ written by Archana Singh
Forensic Science is an applied science. It is the study of scientific principles used to solve crimes and help judiciary systems.
It derives it principles and techniques from basic sciences that’s why it has various number of branches.
Forensic science can be further classified into a number of branches:
Criminalistics is the application of science which uses to collect, examine, identifying and comparing evidences such as biological, trace, ballistics, impression evidence and other related to investigation.
Forensic biology section examine evidence for the presence of body fluids such as blood, semen, saliva, DNA analysis, etc.
Forensic chemistry for detection, recognition and examination of illicit drugs, explosive and gunshot residue. Basically This branch deals with all the tests to detect the presence of various chemicals.
In this branch of forensic science we study of buildings, ballistics, bombs, blood spatters, soil, glass, fiber, etc.
FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
In Forensic document examination, examination of disputed documents carry out through scientific methods. Questioned document examination is set of standard procedure for comparison and identification of original and forge document, disputed wills and official papers.
The branch of pathology that deals with the examination of a corpse to determine the cause of death.
Forensic Psychology is the application of psychology to legal and criminal matters. Forensic psychologists study criminals and their crimes to draw conclusions about the personality traits of the perpetrators and thus assist in criminal profiling.
Forensic Toxicology is The study of poisons and drugs. In Toxicology, presence of toxic substance inside a body and the effect that they had on the individual are analysed and examined.
Forensic Botany is the study and examination of plant-based evidence. Such as; leaves, flowers, wood, fruits, seeds, pollen.
The study of viscera and various body fluids.
Forensic Ballistics involves the analysis of any evidence related to firearms (bullets, bullet marks, shell casings, gunpowder residue etc.).
TRACE EVIDENCE ANALYSIS
Going by Locard’s Principle that “everything leaves a contact”, trace evidence analysis provides crucial links to the perpetrator. Trace evidence is anything that is transferred during the commitment of a crime such as human/animal hair, rope, soil, fabric fibers, feathers, building materials etc. Trace Evidence Analysis involves the recovery of such evidence and their forensic examination to obtain information that can be used in the court of law in association with a case or to answer any other legal query.
Forensic Podiatry deals with the application of specific podiatric knowledge i.e. an understanding of the abnormalities and diseases of the ankle, foot, and lower body, and lower limb anatomy, and musculoskeletal function. This is particularly helpful in the investigation of foot-based evidence with respect to a criminal incident.
FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY / FORENSIC DENTISTRY
Forensic Odontology is also known as study of teeth involves the proper handling, analysis, and evaluation of any form of dental evidence that would be later used as a legal evidence in the court of law. Criminal investigations comprising bite marks largely involve the discipline of Forensic Odontology..
Forensic medicine science dealing with the post-mortem examination of the dead body.
Forensic Entomology involves the application and study of the biology of insects and other arthropods to solve criminal cases. It use to determining time or place of death, by examination of insects in, on and around human remains.
Forensic Linguistics involves the application of linguistic knowledge and methods to criminal investigations and judicial proceedings. It’s involved in the examination of forensic texts such as emergency calls, demands of ransom, suicide notes, social media and death row statements.
FORENSIC GEOLOGY / GEOFORENSICS
Forensic Geology or Geoforensics deals with the examination of evidence related to materials found in the Earth such as oil, petroleum, minerals, soil, rocks and the lake.
It involves the application of engineering principles for the investigation and analysis of such mechanical and structural failures. Such as building and bridges collapse and similar things.
FORENSIC DNA ANALYSIS
It uses in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspect’s profile to DNA evidence to establish their involvement in crime. It also uses in determining family relationship, and identifying disaster victims. The biological evidence used for DNA profiling include hair, skin, semen, urine, blood, saliva and even body remains in burn cases.
Such techniques along with the use of photography and imaging enable forensic archeologists to assist the police and investigating officers to identify the site where the victim’s body and personal items, or robbed goods are buried.
It uses for analyzing bones, skeletal of humans or Animals through recovery and examination. Forensic anthropologists can examine human bodies/skeletons to help identify the individuals and arrive at the cause of death.
It is mostly used in the investigation of cybercrimes. This branch mainly dealing with the cyber-crimes and online frauds etc.
FORENSIC DACTYLOSCOPY / FORENSIC FINGERPRINTS
Forensic fingerprint is the study of fingerprints.
Forensic Accounting is the study and analysis of accounting evidence.