Explanation- German Doctor and anatomist Book: • First to write that friction ridge skin was unique • Book contained detailed drawings of friction ridge skin
II.) 1.) Mark Twain
Explanation- The first American writer to use fingerprints in solving crime was the famous Mark Twain in his perhaps-embellished memoir about life as a steamboat pilot, titled Life on the Mississippi, published in 1883.
III.) 1.) William & Will West
Explanation – They looked identical and even shared the same name, but the two prisoners pictured were actually different people and their remarkable case helped bring in the era of fingerprint identification.
IV.) 2.) Individual Characteristics of Fingerprint
V.) 4.) Cyanoacrylate
Explanation – Cyanoacrylate fuming is a method which is used to develop latent fingerprints. Cyanoacrylatefuming is performed in a developing chamber using super glue and water which allows the vapors to adhere to the fingerprint, The reaction forms a visible white polymer along the ridges of the fingerprint.
VI.) 3.) Basal Layer
Explanation – The basal layer is the innermost layer of the epidermis, and contains small round cells called basal cells.
VII.) 1.) Apocrine
Explanation – The sweat glands which is associated with hair follicles.
VIII.) 4.) 3
IX.) 2.) Chance Prints
Explanation – Chance prints which is also known as latent fingerprints, are the invisible patterns made by fingerprints.
Question– What are Palm Prints and what are the uses of it in forensic Science?
Answer– A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles (secondary lines), and epidermal ridges which make them as unique as fingerprints.
Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic.
Palm prints, typically made from the butt of the palm.
Palm prints can be found at crime scenes when offender’s gloves slipped at the time of commission of the crime; that may leave partial print of palm.
2. Fingerprint remains unchanged during a lifetime.
3. Fingerprint has general ridge patterns that permit
them to be classified.
Fingerprints follow three basic biological principles:
PATTERN TYPE: – All fingerprints can be classified
into pattern types.
UNIQUENESS:-Each fingerprint is unique, no two people
have the same fingerprints.
PERMANENCE: -Fingerprints are unchanging from 3
months fetal life until decomposition.
DEVELOPMENT OF FINGERPRINT
Fingerprint ridges are formed during the third to fourth month of fetal development and their formation completed by the sixth months.
The Fingerprint Left By The Culprit At The Crime Scene
Are Better Known As “Chance-prints” And Very Often Found Mainly Of Three Types:
1.) Plastic Prints / Impression
These Occur When A Finger Or Palm Touches Or Presses
Against Plastic Material.
These Prints Are Usually Found On Materials Such As Soap,
Mud, Pitch, Melted, Wax, Fresh Paint, Putty, Butter, Gum Of Envelop, Grease,
Adhesive Tape, Thick Dried Blood, Negative Film, Plastic, Explosive Etc.
Fingerprint Found On These Surfaces Are Of Three Dimensional Natures.
2.) Patent Fingerprints / Visible
These are prints that are created from the finger contaminated with foreign materials such as blood, paint, grease, ink, oil, dust, mud, soot, dry flour, and face-powder.
3.) Latent Prints
Latent or invisible fingerprints are the most often found
at the crime scene on object with polished or smooth-surfaces.
These prints are formed by a combination of dust. Latent prints include those which are invisible to the unaided eye and all others that are visible but only properly examined after development.
characteristics features of a fingerprint are so unique that they are not
exactly repeated in any other fingerprint or part of one.
are now universally recognized as an infallible means of personal
identification and identification of criminals.
Durability:- A fingerprint
remains unchanged throughout the life of an individual.
Simplicity:- Records of millions of persons can be kept
and retrieved easily with the help of a computer.
Searching Of Fingerprint From
The Scene Of Crime
When a criminal acts, he cannot avoid leaving clues in the form of fingerprints unless he wears gloves or something else for protection.
The following locations are very much common to find fingerprints:-
1.) The Crime Scene
Furniture, Almirah, Boxes, Glass Articles, Crockery, Fridge, Utensils, Bottles, Etc. Should Be Carefully Examined.
Walls, Windows, Vehicle, Floor, Doors, Light Switches, Circuit Breakers and Fuses Should Always Be Examined.
Good Prints Are Often Found On Glass, China Clay Articles Polished Or Painted And Other Smooth Surfaces Like Photography Paper, Negative Film, Adhesive Tape, Carbon Paper, Etc.
2.) Point of Entry
If A Door Was Broken Or Forcefully Opened, Fingerprints May Be Found On The Locks, Knobs, Handles.
If a window was broken, search for pieces of broken glass which may contain fingerprints.
Fingerprints May Be Left On The Window, Window Frame, Window Steel And Jamb.
3.) The Vehicle
The Transport Vehicles such as Cars, Jeeps, Motorcycles, Scooters, etc. are likely to bear fingerprint of the culprit or their occupants.
Steering, Wheel, Back Review Mirror, Lower Parts Of Dikki And Window Glasses, Etc. may contain fingerprints.
4.) Objects Belonging To The
The culprits very often leave some objects belonging to them which may have excellent chances of bearing fingerprints.
Such Objects May Include Shoes, Watch, Tools, Weapon Of Offence, Torch, Liquor Bottles, Poison Bottle, Gas Cutters Assembly, Container Of Fuel Oil Especially In Cases Of Arson, Etc.
Recent techniques have made possible to
develop fingerprints on human bodies.
Such Fingerprints Are Usually Located On The
Skin At Neck, Breasts, Thighs, Wrists And Ankles Regions.
When And How
Is Fingerprint Analysis Used?
of criminals whose fingerprints are found at the scene of crime.
amnesia Victims and Unknown deceased
of missing persons or in cases of kidnapping.
Crime scene investigators often follow a two-phase process when searching for fingerprints.
First they look for patent and plastic prints since they are visible. Often times, a flashlight is used during this phase.
The second phase involves a blind search for latent prints.
The process is concerned with recognition, examination, identification, individualization, and evaluation.
Systematic Approach To Developing Latent Fingerprints on Different Surfaces
Systematic Approach for Developing Bloody Fingerprints
Systematic Approach For Developing Latent Fingerprints On Greasy Or Waxy Surfaces
Systematic Approach for Developing Latent Fingerprints on Adhesive Tapes
Development Of Latent Fingerprints On Various Surfaces By Different Methods
Crime Scene Investigators often use chemical methods to locate the print such as iodine fuming, silver nitrate, or ninhydrin.
When one of these chemicals comes into contact with the chemicals present in the fingerprint residue (natural oils, fats), the print become visual.
fuming takes place in a fuming chamber. The process works by heating up solid
crystal iodine which creates vapors that adhere to the oily residue of print,
producing a brown colored print.
be photographed quickly because Print fades quickly after the fuming takes
nitrate, when exposed to latent prints, reacts with the chloride of the salt
molecules found in print residue, forming silver chloride. When it’s exposed to
ultraviolet light, silver chloride turns black or brown,which make the print
method works particularly well on impressions left in cardboard and paper-like
object on which the print is located can be dipped in or sprayed with a
ninhydrin solution, which reacts with the oils in the print’s residue to create
a bluish print.
Illumination Creates A Contrast Between The Print And The Surface Which Exposes
Systematic Approach For Developing Latent Fingerprints On
Porous Surfaces, Including Paper (Porous Surfaces…..)
technique is usually used to identify latent prints on nonporous surfaces such
as glass, marble, metal, plastic, and finished wood.
powder is distributed on the surface, it adheres to the residue deposited from
the finger’s touch, allowing investigators to find the print.
Magnetic Powder Technique
times, to avoid smudging the print, a magnetic powder technique is used in
which the powder is poured on the surface and then spread evenly over the
surface using a magnetic force.
fuming is a chemical process that exposes and fixes fingerprints on a nonporous
lab, An airtight tank, known as a fuming chamber use to heat up superglue
(liquid cyanoacrylate) which releases gases that adhere to the oily residue of
print, thereby creating an image of the fingerprint.
crime scene, investigators may use a handheld wand that heats up superglue and
a florescent dye.
Systematic Approach For Developing Latent Fingerprints On Nonporous Surfaces
and identifying fingerprints left on human skin is incredibly difficult.
According to Scientific Evidence, the first major obstacle is
finding the print since the oily residue left by fingers that creates the
fingerprint itself is often present on human skin, making it difficult to create
a contrast between the surface (skin) and the print.
hours is the maximum amount of time that a print on skin may be viable.
Black, a non-specific protein stain that reacts with any protein present, is
typically used for developing or enhancing bloody impressions on human skin.
that are not flat or have a rough surface, such as a painting with brush
strokes or a golf ball will make the process of identifying and collecting
fingerprints more difficult, but not impossible.
Trans, a liquid casting compound, can be used to lift powdered latent prints
from rough, textured or curved surfaces.
Other Methods For Development of Fingerprints
Involves the illumination of fingerprints due to
fluorescing particles picked up during everyday life from paints, inks and oil.
It can be used on painted walls, metals, plastic, rubber,
cloth and wood.
The fingerprint is developed by first evaporating a thin
layer of gold onto the specimen, followed by a layer of Cadmium which
fills in the print and provides a contrast.
Certain bacteria, for example “Acinetobacter
Calciacatieus”, can be used to develop prints on valuable oil paintings.
The bacteria in a nutrient gel are pasted onto the
surface of the painting, making the print visible as they multiply. The gel can then simply be wiped off, leaving
the painting unaffected.
Radioactive atoms are incorporated into the fingerprint
by placing the piece of fabric into a container containing radioactive gases,
such as Iodine or Sulphur Dioxide, at a humidity of less than 50%. The fabric is then put into contact with
photographic film, and the radioactive atoms cause a picture to become clear.
Alternate Light Source (ALS)
are laser or LED devices that emit a particular wavelength, or spectrum, of
For example, investigators may use a blue light with an orange filter to find latent prints on desks, chairs, computer equipment or other objects at the scene of a break-in
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Forensic is; Observe a Little More – Archana Singh