Category Archives: Fingerprint

Objectives on Fingerprints

Multiple Choice Questions

I.) Who first explained the Friction Ridge Skin Pattern with drawings:-

1.)Sir Francis Galton

2.)J.C.A. Mayer

3.)Henry Faulds

4.)William Herschel

II.) “Life on the Mississippi” is wrote by:-

1.)Mark Twain

2.)Thompson

3.)Henry Faulds

4.)J.C.A. Mayer

III.)First case of identical twins with no resemblance in their Fingerprints:-

1.)William & Will Wells

2.)William & Windy Wells

3.)Mark & Monty Wells

4.)William & William Wells

IV.)Edward Henry classified Fingerprints into how many Classes:-

1.)3

2.)4

3.)8

4.)2

V.)What percentage of world Population have Loop Pattern:-

1.)50-90

2.)20-30

3.)50-70

4.)60-65

VI.)Ridge ending, Bifurcation, Eye, Triangle, etc. are the terminologies used for:-

1.)Class Characteristics of Fingerprint

2.)Individual Characteristics of Fingerprint

3.)Fingerprint

4.)Galton Classification

VII.)Which Statement is not true about Fingerprints:-

1.)No two fingers can have the same fingerprints

2.)Fingerprint remains unchanged during a Lifetime.

3.)Identical Twins share similar Fingerprints.

4.)Fingerprints can be changed because of accidental mark.

VIII.)How many Biological Principle followed by Fingerprints:-

1.)5

2.)7

3.)1

4.)3

IX.)Fingerprint Left by the offender at the SoC is known as:-

1.)Patent Prints

2.)Chance Prints

3.)Plastic Prints

4.)Latent Prints

X.) Fingerprints used since centuries as  ________ for protection if documents and Identification of Individual:-

1.)Signature

2.)Tradition

3.)Fingerprints

4.)Symbol

Forensic Science – Multiple Choice Questions (Fingerprint)

By @forensicfield

I.) Who first explained the Friction Ridge Skin Pattern with drawings:-

1.) Sir Francis Galton
2.) J.C.A. Mayer
3.) Henry Faulds
4.) William Herschel

II.) “Life on the Mississippi” is wrote by:-

1.) Mark Twain
2.) Thompson
3.) Henry Faulds
4.) J.C.A. Mayer

III.) First case of identical twins with no resemblance in their Fingerprints:-

1.) William & Will West
2.) William & Windy Wells
3.) Mark & Monty Wells
4.) William & William Wells

IV.) Ridge ending, Bifurcation, Eye, Triangle, etc. are the terminologies used for:-

1.) Class Characteristics of Fingerprint
2.) Individual Characteristics of Fingerprint
3.) Fingerprint
4.) Galton Classification

V.) Fingerprints on plastic metal, glass and skin can be placed in a developing jar with this chemical that reacts with amino acids to make the print appear white.

1.) Silver nitrate
2.) Ninhydrin
3.) Iodine fuming
4.) Cyanoacrylate

VI.) The skin layer between the epidermis and dermis is the _________ layer.

1.) Cuticle
2.) Subcutaneous
3.) Basal
4.) Top

VII.) Sweat glands near the hair follicle:

1.) Apocrine
2.) Friction ridges
3.) Touch receptor
4.) Eccrine

VIII.) How many Biological Principle followed by Fingerprints:-

1.) 5
2.) 7
3.) 1
4.) 3

IX.) Fingerprint Left by the offender at the SoC is known as:-

1.) Patent Prints
2.) Chance Prints
3.) Plastic Prints
4.) Latent Prints

X.) Fingerprints used since centuries as ________ for protection if documents and Identification of Individual:-

1.) Signature
2.) Tradition
3.) Fingerprints
4.) Symbol

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Answer

I.) 2.) J.C.A. Mayer

Explanation- German Doctor and anatomist Book:
• First to write that friction ridge skin was unique
• Book contained detailed drawings of friction ridge skin

II.) 1.) Mark Twain

Explanation- The first American writer to use fingerprints in solving crime was the famous Mark Twain in his perhaps-embellished memoir about life as a steamboat pilot, titled Life on the Mississippi, published in 1883.

III.) 1.) William & Will West

Explanation – They looked identical and even shared the same name, but the two prisoners pictured were actually different people and their remarkable case helped bring in the era of fingerprint identification.

IV.) 2.) Individual Characteristics of Fingerprint

V.) 4.) Cyanoacrylate

Explanation – Cyanoacrylate fuming is a method which is used to develop latent fingerprints. Cyanoacrylate fuming is performed in a developing chamber using super glue and water which allows the vapors to adhere to the fingerprint, The reaction forms a visible white polymer along the ridges of the fingerprint.

VI.) 3.) Basal Layer

Explanation – The basal layer is the innermost layer of the epidermis, and contains small round cells called basal cells.

VII.) 1.) Apocrine

Explanation – The sweat glands which is associated with hair follicles.

VIII.) 4.) 3

IX.) 2.) Chance Prints

Explanation – Chance prints which is also known as latent fingerprints, are the invisible patterns made by fingerprints.

X.) 1.) Signature



Palm Print

Question– What are Palm Prints and what are the uses of it in forensic Science?

Answer– A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand.
The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles (secondary lines), and epidermal ridges which make them as unique as fingerprints.

Uses::-

Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic.

Palm prints, typically made from the butt of the palm.

Palm prints can be found at crime scenes when offender’s gloves slipped at the time of commission of the crime; that may leave partial print of palm.

Image by:- Shakir Hussain (@medical__detective)

Fingerprints

By @forensicfield

PRINCIPLES OF FINGERPRINTS

1. A fingerprint is an individual characteristic.

  • No two fingers have the same fingerprint.
  • Identical twins are similar but not identical.

2. Fingerprint remains unchanged during a lifetime.

3. Fingerprint has general ridge patterns that permit them to be classified.

BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

Fingerprints follow three basic biological principles:

PATTERN TYPE: – All fingerprints can be classified into pattern types.

UNIQUENESS:-Each fingerprint is unique, no two people have the same fingerprints.

PERMANENCE: -Fingerprints are unchanging from 3 months fetal life until decomposition.

DEVELOPMENT OF FINGERPRINT

Fingerprint ridges are formed during the third to fourth month of fetal development and their formation completed by the sixth months.

Chance Print

The Fingerprint Left By The Culprit At The Crime Scene Are Better Known As “Chance-prints” And Very Often Found Mainly Of Three Types:

1.) Plastic Prints / Impression

These Occur When A Finger Or Palm Touches Or Presses Against Plastic Material.

These Prints Are Usually Found On Materials Such As Soap, Mud, Pitch, Melted, Wax, Fresh Paint, Putty, Butter, Gum Of Envelop, Grease, Adhesive Tape, Thick Dried Blood, Negative Film, Plastic, Explosive Etc.

Fingerprint Found On These Surfaces Are Of Three Dimensional Natures.

2.) Patent Fingerprints / Visible 

These are prints that are created from the finger contaminated with foreign materials such as blood, paint, grease, ink, oil, dust, mud, soot, dry flour, and face-powder.

3.)  Latent Prints / Invisible

Latent or invisible fingerprints are the most often found at the crime scene on object with polished or smooth-surfaces.

These prints are formed by a combination of dust. Latent prints include those which are invisible to the unaided eye and all others that are visible but only properly examined after development.

Significance

Uniqueness:- The characteristics features of a fingerprint are so unique that they are not exactly repeated in any other fingerprint or part of one.

Infallibility:- Fingerprints are now universally recognized as an infallible means of personal identification and identification of criminals.

Durability:- A fingerprint remains unchanged throughout the life of an individual.

Simplicity:-  Records of millions of persons can be kept and retrieved easily with the help of a computer. 

Searching Of Fingerprint From The Scene Of Crime

Location

  • When a criminal acts, he cannot avoid leaving clues in the form of fingerprints unless he wears gloves or something else for protection.
  • The following locations are very much common to find fingerprints:-
1.) The Crime Scene
  • Furniture, Almirah, Boxes, Glass Articles, Crockery, Fridge, Utensils, Bottles, Etc. Should Be Carefully Examined.
  • Walls, Windows, Vehicle, Floor, Doors, Light Switches, Circuit Breakers and Fuses Should Always Be Examined.
  • Good Prints Are Often Found On Glass, China Clay Articles Polished Or Painted And Other Smooth Surfaces Like Photography Paper, Negative Film, Adhesive Tape, Carbon Paper, Etc.
2.)  Point of Entry
  • If A Door Was Broken Or Forcefully Opened, Fingerprints May Be Found On The Locks, Knobs, Handles.
  • If a window was broken, search for pieces of broken glass which may contain fingerprints.
  • Fingerprints May Be Left On The Window, Window Frame, Window Steel And Jamb.
3.)  The Vehicle
  • The Transport Vehicles such as Cars, Jeeps, Motorcycles, Scooters, etc. are likely to bear fingerprint of the culprit or their occupants.
  • Steering, Wheel, Back Review Mirror, Lower Parts Of Dikki And Window Glasses, Etc. may contain fingerprints.
4.) Objects Belonging To The Culprit
  • The culprits very often leave some objects belonging to them which may have excellent chances of bearing fingerprints.
  • Such Objects May Include Shoes, Watch, Tools, Weapon Of Offence, Torch, Liquor Bottles, Poison Bottle, Gas Cutters Assembly, Container Of Fuel Oil Especially In Cases Of Arson, Etc.
5.) Human Bodies
  • Recent techniques have made possible to develop fingerprints on human bodies.
  • Such Fingerprints Are Usually Located On The Skin At Neck, Breasts, Thighs, Wrists And Ankles Regions.

When And How Is Fingerprint Analysis Used?

  • Identification of criminals whose fingerprints are found at the scene of crime.
  • Providing biometric Security
  • Identifying amnesia Victims and Unknown deceased
  • Conducting background checks
  • Identification of missing persons or in cases of kidnapping.
  • Identification of unconscious persons.
  • In mistaken identity.
  • Detection of bank forgeries.

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Methods Of Latent Fingerprint Developement

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

Crime scene investigators often follow a two-phase process when searching for fingerprints.

  • First they look for patent and plastic prints since they are visible. Often times, a flashlight is used during this phase.
  • The second phase involves a blind search for latent prints.

The process is concerned with recognition, examination, identification, individualization, and evaluation.

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Systematic Approach To Developing Latent Fingerprints on Different Surfaces

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Systematic Approach for Developing Bloody Fingerprints

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Systematic Approach For Developing Latent Fingerprints On Greasy Or Waxy Surfaces

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Systematic Approach for Developing Latent Fingerprints on Adhesive Tapes

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Development Of Latent Fingerprints On Various Surfaces By Different Methods

Porous Surfaces

Crime Scene Investigators often use chemical methods to locate the print such as iodine fuming, silver nitrate, or ninhydrin.

When one of these chemicals comes into contact with the chemicals present in the fingerprint residue (natural oils, fats), the print become visual.

Iodine Fuming

Iodine fuming takes place in a fuming chamber. The process works by heating up solid crystal iodine which creates vapors that adhere to the oily residue of print, producing a brown colored print.

It must be photographed quickly because Print fades quickly after the fuming takes place.

Silver Nitrate

Silver nitrate, when exposed to latent prints, reacts with the chloride of the salt molecules found in print residue, forming silver chloride. When it’s exposed to ultraviolet light, silver chloride turns black or brown,which make the print visible.

This method works particularly well on impressions left in cardboard and paper-like surfaces.

Ninhydrin

The object on which the print is located can be dipped in or sprayed with a ninhydrin solution, which reacts with the oils in the print’s residue to create a bluish print.

Laser Illumination

Laser Illumination Creates A Contrast Between The Print And The Surface Which Exposes The Print.

Systematic Approach For Developing Latent Fingerprints On Porous Surfaces, Including  Paper (Porous Surfaces…..)

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Nonporous Surfaces

A powder technique is usually used to identify latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as glass, marble, metal, plastic, and finished wood.

When powder is distributed on the surface, it adheres to the residue deposited from the finger’s touch, allowing investigators to find the print.

Magnetic Powder Technique

Often times, to avoid smudging the print, a magnetic powder technique is used in which the powder is poured on the surface and then spread evenly over the surface using a magnetic force.

Superglue Fuming

Superglue fuming is a chemical process that exposes and fixes fingerprints on a nonporous surface.

In the lab, An airtight tank, known as a fuming chamber use to heat up superglue (liquid cyanoacrylate) which releases gases that adhere to the oily residue of print, thereby creating an image of the fingerprint.

At the crime scene, investigators may use a handheld wand that heats up superglue and a florescent dye.

Systematic Approach For Developing Latent Fingerprints On Nonporous Surfaces

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Human Skin:

Locating and identifying fingerprints left on human skin is incredibly difficult. According to Scientific Evidence, the first major obstacle is finding the print since the oily residue left by fingers that creates the fingerprint itself is often present on human skin, making it difficult to create a contrast between the surface (skin) and the print.

Two hours is the maximum amount of time that a print on skin may be viable. 

Amido Black

Amido Black, a non-specific protein stain that reacts with any protein present, is typically used for developing or enhancing bloody impressions on human skin.

Textured Surfaces

Surfaces that are not flat or have a rough surface, such as a painting with brush strokes or a golf ball will make the process of identifying and collecting fingerprints more difficult, but not impossible.

Accu Trans

Accu Trans, a liquid casting compound, can be used to lift powdered latent prints from rough, textured or curved surfaces.

Other Methods For Development of Fingerprints

Laser Luminescence

Involves the illumination of fingerprints due to fluorescing particles picked up during everyday life from paints, inks and oil.

It can be used on painted walls, metals, plastic, rubber, cloth and wood.

Metal Evaporation

The fingerprint is developed by first evaporating a thin layer of gold onto the specimen, followed by a layer of Cadmium which fills in the print and provides a contrast.

Bacteria

Certain bacteria, for example “Acinetobacter Calciacatieus”, can be used to develop prints on valuable oil paintings.

The bacteria in a nutrient gel are pasted onto the surface of the painting, making the print visible as they multiply.  The gel can then simply be wiped off, leaving the painting unaffected.

Autoradiography

Radioactive atoms are incorporated into the fingerprint by placing the piece of fabric into a container containing radioactive gases, such as Iodine or Sulphur Dioxide, at a humidity of less than 50%.  The fabric is then put into contact with photographic film, and the radioactive atoms cause a picture to become clear.

Alternate Light Source (ALS)

These are laser or LED devices that emit a particular wavelength, or spectrum, of light.

For example, investigators may use a blue light with an orange filter to find latent prints on desks, chairs, computer equipment or other objects at the scene of a break-in

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