Category Archives: Crime Scene Investigation

Tools & Equipments for Crime Scene Investigation

In Crime Scene Investigation, An investigator needs some tools which help in collecting evidences, preserving crime scene, etc.

Here is the list of some essential items for investigating officers which they need to carry with them all time, especially on a crime-scene.

The list of Tools and Equipments is start from Crime Scene Barricade Tape, which is very essential to block the scene to anyone. This is the first thing an investigating officer or first responding officer needs after calling the ambulance for the injured person if there’s one.

Then the List includes:

  • Magnifying glass
  • Bindle paper.
  • Biohazard bags.
  • Consent/search forms.
  • First-aid kit.
  • Flares.
  • Flashlight and extra batteries.
  • Markers
  • Marker stickers such as numbers, letters, arrows, scales.
  • Notebook.
  • Paper bags.
  • Personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, booties, hair covering, overalls and mask).
  • Bodily fluid collection kit (sterile swabs, distilled water, — optional presumptive tests, and sterile packaging that allows the swabs to air dry).
  • Evidence collection containers (e.g., jars, paper bags, resealable plastic bags, metal paint style cans).
  • Camera (plus memory cards, back up battery, remote flash, tripod and remote cord).
  • Evidence seals/tape.
  • Footwear casting materials.
  • Fingerprint ink pad and pint cards for elimination prints.
  • Graph paper and pencils, small ruler or straight edge.
  • Latent print kit.
  • Measuring devices (e.g, measuring wheel, tape measures of varying lengths).
  • Multifunction utility tool.
  • Placards.
  • Plastic resealable bags (various sizes)
  • Scales for photography.
  • Spray paint, chalk, etc.
  • Syringe/knife tubes.
  • Tweezers(disposable).
  • Cutting instruments (knives, box cutter, scalpel, scissors).
  • Directional marker/compass.
  • Entomology (insect) collection kit.
  • Flags (surveyor type) for marking evidence and setting up search patterns.
  • Forensic light source (alternate light source, UV lamp/laser, goggles).
  • Gunshot residue kit.
  • High-intensity lights.
  • Labels.
  • Laser trajectory kit.
  • Maps.
  • Marking paint/snow wax.
  • Metal detector.
  • Nail clippers and orange peeler (for collecting debris under suspect fingernails).
  • Pocket knife.
  • Presumptive blood test supplies.
  • Refrigeration or cooling unit.
  • Sexual assault evidence collection kit (for victim and suspect).
  • Tarps to protect evidence from the weather.
  • Thermometer.
  • Tool kit.
  • Traffic cones.

How To Search Fingerprints On Crime Scene

The search for possible fingerprint needs a systematic and narrowly approach to the suspected areas.

✔Fingerprints can frequently be seen by holding the flashlight🔦at low angles so that the surface is observed under oblique lighting.

✔Observation under white light may reveal latent fingerprints that can be photographed without any further treatment.

✔In some cases, latent print can often be detected using episcope coaxial illumination. The print is, therefore, visible as dark ridges against a light background.

✔A magnifying lens🔎 is useful to locate and judge the quality of the fingerprints.

Use of Photographic Techniques in Forensic Science

Sources:A Closer Look On Forensic Science written by Archana Singh

INTRODUCTION

A crime-Scene photographer which is also known as forensic photographer or an evidence photographer is a professional photographer who is skilled in the art of producing only the most exact, detailed photographs that photograph of entire crime scene and physical evidences from every angle. Different types of photographic techniques are used in forensic science such as ultraviolet, Infrared, Macro, Panoramic, Digital, Fluorescent, Multiple.

Crime scene photography play an important role in collection of evidences at the crime scene, as it documents the appearance and location of victims, fingerprints, footprints, bloodstain patterns, and other physical evidence and produces a permanent, visual record in front of court whenever asked for.

Forensic Photography is the fair and accurate recording of a scene or object, of legal interest, by a camera.

“For the police photographer, photographs are statements of what he or she saw at a Scene.

“Photography is a valuable tool for recording the crime scene and explaining the evidence to others.”

Guidelines For Photographing Crime Scene

Different Type of Photographic Techniques

  • Ultra Violet Photography
  • Fluorescence Photography
  • Infrared Photography
  • Macro photography
  • Digital Photography
  • Panoramic photography
  • Multiple Exposure

✔ Ultraviolet Photography

There are two distinct techniques of ultraviolet photography:
1. Reflected or direct method
2. Ultraviolet fluorescence method

Reflected or Direct Method

  • The reflected ultraviolet photographic technique records only ultraviolet radiation, in the region 320nm to 390nm, reflected from the subject.
  • All other radiation is prevented from reaching the film.
  • A source of ultraviolet is directed at the subject which will then reflect this radiation back into the camera.
  • Some materials that are black in visible Light reflect ultraviolet so effectively that they record as white using the reflected ultraviolet Technique.

✔ Fluorescent Photography

  • Requires, usually, tripod, remote shutter release, and barrier filter with standard 35mm camera.
  • Usually requires about 15-30 seconds time exposure with 35mm.
  • Orange 18 is good all around filter.
  • Consider digital camera with barrier filter for real time photos.

✔ Infrared Photography

  • Infrared techniques can be applied in the field or in a laboratory environment.
  • In some instances the only opportunity to document the evidence is in the field at the crime scene.

✔ Macro Photography

  • Macro photography is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects, in which the size of the subject is greater than life size.
  • However in other uses it refers to a finished photograph of a subject at greater than life size.
  • A “true” macro photograph can be more practically defined as a photograph with a vertical subject height of 24 mm or less.

✔ Digital Photography

  • Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photo detectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.
  • Digital cameras in the range of 8 to 14 megapixels can record the same level of fine details in a footwear impression as recorded on a 35mm negative.

✔ Panoramic Photography

  • Panoramic photography is a technique of photography, using specialized equipment or software, that captures images with elongated fields of view.
  • It is sometimes known as wide format photography.

✔ Multiple Exposure

  • In photography and cinematography, a multiple exposure is the superimposition of two or more exposures to create a single image.
  • Double exposure has a corresponding meaning in respect of two images.
  • The exposure values may or may not be identical to each other.

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Know More About Crime Scene Photography in Detail; Read

“A Closer Look On Forensic Science”

Investigation of crime Scene

Sources:A Closer Look On Forensic Science written by Archana Singh

How is it possible to identify the person who committed a crime??

A little amount of blood or a hair or a fiber or a part of skin or any number of different type of materials can help a crime to be reconstructed and lead investigators to the responsible person.

The goal of a crime-scene investigation is to recognize, document and collect evidence at the scene of a crime.

Solving the crime will then depend on putting together the evidence to form a picture of what happened at the crime-scene.

INTRODUCTION :
Investigative Process are to:
👉 Establish that a crime was actually committed,
👉 Identify and apprehend the suspect,
👉 Recover stolen property,
👉 Assist in the prosecution of the person,
Charged with the crime.

WHO IS AN INVESTIGATOR? :
An investigator is one who collects, documents and evaluates evidence and information. The whole process complete through the investigation.

PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION :
The purpose of criminal investigation and forensic science is to discover the truth behind the scene.

IDENTIFYING, ESTABLISHING, PROTECTING, AND SECURING THE BOUNDARIES :
🔗 The initial Boundary established around the crime scene should be larger than the scene.
🔗 This boundary can easily be shifted inward later but is not as easily enlarged because the surroundings areas may have been contaminated during ensuring interval.
🔗 The Responding officers must document all actions and observations at the scene as soon as possible.

HOW TO SECURE CRIME SCENE? :
🧤 Naturally, a general rule of protecting the crime scene cannot be applied in every case.
🧤 Who arrive first at crime scene referred as first officer or first responder. The first officer’s top priority to offer assistance for any injured person.
🧤To safeguards evidence and minimize contamination , access to scene must be limited and any persons found at the scene must be identified , documented and then removed from the scene.
🧤 As additional officers arrive, they will begin procedures to isolate the area, using barricades and police tape unauthorized persons from the scene.

DOCUMENTING THE SCENE AND THE EVIDENCE :
Documenting of the crime scene and the evidence involve four major task:
1. Note-taking
2. Photography
3. Sketching
4. Videography

RESPONSIBILITIES OF LEAD INVESTIGATOR :
The lead investigators first task is to evaluate the scene should be processed for physical evidence.
 The collection and analysis be processed for physical evidence.
 The lead investigator will direct and control the processing. Starting with the recognition of physical evidence.

SYSTEMATICALLY SEARCH FOR EVIDENCE :

Pattern of search at crime – scene.
For the search of crime scene following search patterns are use.

COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF CRIME SCENE :
Once the discoverer, time of discovery location and appearance of evidence have been thoroughly documented, the evidence must be collected, preserved, inventoried, and packaged in preparation for submission to the forensic lab.

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INVESTIGATION OF CRIME SCENE

Know More About Crime Scene Investigation in Detail; Read

“A Closer Look On Forensic Science”