Category Archives: Forensic Medicine

Post Mortem Interval

PMI is a short of Post Mortem Interval.

In medical terminology Post Mortem Interval is known as estimated times of hours/days/weeks or months from individuals death.

Forensic Pathologist uses a  variety of techniques to estimate the time elapsed since individual’s death.

For example:

  • Changes in body temperature,
  • Muscular rigidity,
  • Blood pooling,
  • Decomposition of Body,
  • Type of insects present on body,
  • and stage of larvae, etc.

Weight of Organs in Human Body

The human body consists of 78 organs in total. Five of them are important for survival, which are: brain, liver, kidney, heart, lungs.

Heaviest Organ of Human Body is Liver while Lightest Organ is Lung. The weight of organ is help to determine that whether it is normal or pathological.

Following image is showing the weight of different Organs in Human Body:

Number of Bones in Different Parts of Human Body

An adult human body has a total of 206 bones. While a child has about 300 bones in its body.

Different numbers of bones are found in different parts of the body and in different sizes. The ear has the smallest bone while the thigh is the largest.

Different body parts have different numbers of bones which are shown in the following image:

ph of body Fluids of Human

pH : pH (potential of hydrogen’ or ‘power of hydrogen’) is a scale which is used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

Human Body need to maintain pH level in the serum about 7.4 to live. pH of blood is 7.4 but the pH of other Body flood is Different. Upper and Lower Part of Stomach have different pH value. Upper stomach pH value ranges from 4.0 to 6.5 while Lower Stomach pH value ranges from 1.5 to 4.0.

Following image has shown the different pH level of Different body fluids of Human Body:


Forensic Medicine & Toxicology (MCQs)

Q-1. Segmented blood in retinal blood vessels, sign is: (AIIMS MAY 2015)

a) Rokitansky

b) Tache noir

c) Kevorkian

d) None

Answer: Kevorkian sign

Q-2. The ideal place to record temperature in dead body is from: (AIIMS MAY 2006)

a) Axilla

b) Groin

c) Rectum

d) Mouth

Answer: Rectum

Q-3. Brachiocephaly is due to fusion of

a) Saggital suture      

b) Coronal suture

c) Parietal suture

d) Lambdoid suture

Answer: Coronal Suture

Q-4. A dead body is having cadaveric lividity of bluish green color. The most likely cause of death is by poisoning due to: (AIIMS MAY 2006)

a) Hydrocyanic Acid

b) Hydrogen Sulfide

c) Oleander

d) Sodium Nitrite

Answer: Hydrogen Sulfide

Q-5. A dead body with suspected poisoning is having hypostasis of red brown or deep blue in color. It is suggestive of poisoning due to: (AIIMS NOV 2002)

a) Nitrates

b) Carbon monoxide

c) Cyanides

d) Barbiturates

Answer: Nitrates

Q-6. Rigor mortis is not seen in (AIIMS NOV 2013)

a) Female with strong built

b) Male with strong built

c) Old person >80yrs old

d) Fetus <20 wks gestation age

Answer: Fetus <20 wks gestation age

Q-7. In a suspected case of death due to poisoning, where cadaveric rigidity is lasting longer than usual, it may be a case of poisoning due to: (AIIMS May 2003)

a) Lead

b) Arsenic

c) Mercury

d) Copper

Answer: Arsenic

Q-8. Heat stiffening in muscles occurs above temperature- (AIIMS MAY 2012)

a) 30°C

b) 40°C

c) 50°C

d) 60°C

Answer: 60°C

Q-9. When a group of muscles of a dead body were in state of strong contraction immediately prior to death and remain so even after death, the condition is termed as: (AIIMS May 2005)

a) Gas stiffening

b) Rigor mortis

c) Cadaveric spasm

d) Cold stiffening

Answer: Cadaveric spasm

Q-10. Postmortem caloricity may be seen in all the following causes of death except: (AIIMS May 2005)

a) Septicemia

b) Barbiturate poisoning

c) Strychnine poisoning

d) Tetanus

Answer: Barbiturate poisoning

Q-11. Which one of the tissues putrefies late? (AIIMS NOV 2003)

a) Brain

b) Prostate

c) Liver

d) Stomach

Answer: Prostate

Q-12. Condition promoting adipocere formation (AIIMS MAY 2011)

a) Dry and hot

b) Hot and humid

c) Dry and optimum

d) Cold and moist

Answer: Hot and humid

Q-13. A dead born fetus does not have: (AIIMS May 2003)

a) Rigor mortis at birth

b) Adipocere formation

c) Maceration

d) Mummification

Answer: Adipocere formation

Q-14. Constituents of a typical embalming solution are all except (AIIMS NOV 2008)

a) Phenol

b) Glycerin

c) Formalin

d) Ethanol

Answer: Phenol

Q-15. The dead body of a murdered person is brought for preservation in mortuary. Which of the following statements is not correct? (AIIMS NOV 2004)

a) The body should be stored averagely at 4°C

b) The body can be embalmed before postmortem

c) The body should be never undressed before the forensic doctor has seen it

d) The body can be stored at –20°C to preserve it for long duration

Answer: The body can be embalmed before postmortem