Category Archives: Glossary

Cystolithic hairs

The Cystolithic hairs are a spindle-shaped body consisting of pectin-associated concentric layers of longitudinally aligned cellulose microfibrils and other cell wall of polysaccharides.

Cystolithic hairs contain Calcium Carbonate(CaCO3).

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Acid Phosphatase

Acid Phosphatase is an enzyme found in many tissues, cellular components of bone, spleen, kidney, liver, intestine, and blood.

Acid phosphatase (AP) is secreted into the semen fluid by the prostate gland and is found in concentrations up to 400 times higher in semen than in other body fluids. (Sensabaugh 1979, Saferstein 2001).

It is used as an indicator for the detection of semen in forensic laboratories.

Also Read: Acid Phosphatase Test

Acid phosphatase Test

Acid phosphatase testing is one of the most common tests for semen detection in forensic laboratories. 

The Acid Phosphatase test detect presence of semen by direct testing or indirect testing.

For Direct testing a drop of extract is placed onto filter/blotting paper which contains Suspected sample and in the case of Indirect testing, disputed sample with stain is pressing with dampened filter/blotting paper on to the surface to move some fluid/stain on paper. Then filter/blotting papers are tested with a chemical reagent, which changes colour from orange to purple which confirms the presence of acid phosphatase. This is due to hydrolysis of the α-napthylphosphate to produce α-napthol, which couples with a Brentamine Fast Black/Blue salt, produce purple azo dye. 


ACP – Automatic Colt Pistol

Automatic Colt Pistol is usually used in correlation to the caliber.

It denotes various John Browning cartridge designs. These designs primarily used in Colt and Fabrique Nationale de Herstal pistols. All of these cartridges are straight-sided and appear similar.

🔸️ The .25 ACP, .32 ACP, and .38 ACP are semi-rimmed and headspace on the rim

🔸️ The .380 ACP and .45 ACP are rimless and headspace on the mouth of the case.