Category Archives: Forensic Evidences

CCTV Footage Importance as an Evidence

Full Form of CCTV: Closed-circuit TeleVision

Other Name: It is also known as Video Surveillance

Work: It uses video cameras and mike to transmit a signal to selected computers.

Admissibility of Electronic Evidences in Court: Electronic documents are admissible as material evidence. The computer generated electronic records in evidence are admissible at a trial if proved in the manner specified by Section 65B of the Indian Evidence Act.

Introduction: Nowadays CCTV cameras are one of the essentials and found almost everywhere; You can see it in malls, road, House, colleges, hotels, shop and many more places where security is needed. CCTV uses in Crime Scene Investigation: As we can find CCTV everywhere and it is capable to record videos in it’s range so it play a very important role in police investigation. With the help of CCTV many crime has been solved, many alibi has been made. CCTV used as an important security instrument by most of places so whenever anything happen it has been used as an instrument in solving the case.

Recently, Ballabgarh murder caught on camera! CCTV footage shows 21-year-old student shot dead in cold blood. CCTV footage was all over the media and every social site platform.

Fact of the case:

👉CCTV footage shows a girl named Nikita Tomar being shot dead by an assailant (Taufeeq) outside her college in Ballabgarh, Faridabad. Shooter and associate flees in car. Police have arrested Taufeeq and his associate. Will Footage will be consider as an direct evidence to prove suspect guilty? Lets know more about it:

Credibility of CCTV Camera in eye of Law: As an eye witness can’t be reliable too much because of his/her memory, turning hostile, may be bought or have any rivalry, CCTV also has its own problem, such as; bad video quality, no audio, blurred footage, etc. Still CCTV evidence has the potential to be conclusive enough to prosecute and CCTV footage is a strong piece of evidence but raw footage alone may prove to be inadequate so witness or other evidences are highly needed.

Question: What type of evidence is CCTV?

Answer: CCTV is a Circumstantial Evidence.

Question: What is a Circumstantial Evidences?

Answer:   Circumstantial evidence are those from which the desired conclusion may be drawn .  Circumstantial evidence is referred to as indirect evidence.

Role of Forensic Scientists

✍Work of Forensic starts from here. When the quality of the footage is poor, it can be very difficult to clearly identify the person visible in the video. There is technique named as Facial Mapping which can be used to identify the subject of the CCTV recording by comparing facial proportions and the distances between their features to a known image of a Person/victim/suspect. The findings of facial mapping can offer an indication of how likely it is that the person in the known image and the person in the CCTV image are the same. This work come under Forensic Physics Division.

Gait Analysis:

✍If the CCTV failed to capture the clear images, do not show the suspect’s face, then gait analysis can also be used to identify. Gait analysis means manner of walking is also studied in forensic science and used to track the person by comparison of actual walk with the video walk.

After applying all forensic applications and methods this alone can’t prove suspect guilty if other evidence and witnesses does not turned against the suspect.

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Glass Fracture Patterns

Question: what is importance of Broken Glass at Crime Scene?

Answer: Broken glass at crime scenes can play an important role in crime scene reconstruction, and it can be a very useful evidence. Glass fracture patterns are most often found at the following crime scene:

👉 Criminal Mischief,

👉 Burglary.

👉 Shooting Incidents,

👉 Fire Scenes, etc.

Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

Question: Which type of information can be obtained from analysis of broken glass?

Answer: Some common types of information can be obtained by studying glass fracture patterns:

1.) Direction of impact force applied (whether it is from inside out or outside in).

2.) Approximate force of impact.

3.) Approximate angle of impact of force.

4.) Determination of the type of glass fracture.

5.) Determination of the sequence of firing, direction of firing, and the type of firearm for the projectile holes present.

5.) Estimation of the fire temperatures, direction of fire travel, and the intensity of heat from the melted glass.

The use of glass fracture patterns in crime scene reconstruction relies on careful recognition, documentation, and study of radial and concentric glass fracture markings. Other information for reconstruction is obtained by analysis of rib marks, spatial relationships, crack marks, and the condition of any melted glass.

Photo by Thiago Matos on Pexels.com

Soil As An Evidence

Question:- Why soil is considered as an Evidence?

Answer:- Every type of soil has unique properties which act as an identification markers that’s why it plays important role in criminal investigation. Forensic scientists consider soil as any earth material that may lead to the conclusion or can help to reconstruct the crime scene and can be way to reach to the criminal. it can be stick to the tires, shoes, or foot or it can be unknowingly or knowingly stick to the clothes of victim or culprit. Soil forensics is considered as an important wing during investigations.


The basic components of soil are minerals, organic matter, water and air. But what do we need for forensic analysis in Soil, it includes rock, minerals, vegetation, glass, paint, asphalt, etc. Soil samples may also contain fossils or debris from human habitation and/or industrial operations, e.g. paint droplets, cinders, chemicals or fibers, however, these are rare but unique. The presence of these in that place helps to make that place of soil unique from others.

Question:- What quantity of soil sample is required ?

Answer:- In most forensics cases, only about one cup of the top layer of soil needs to be collected.

Question:- How soil samples should be collected?

Answer:- Collection tool materials: Tools for soil collection should be new or disposable items, such as; plastic spoons, swabs, wipes, filters. Nondisposable tools for softer materials (unconsolidated sand) may be made of plastic, but for harder materials, tools made of hardened or stainless steel are recommended.

Question:- How analysis should be performed?

Answer:- Samples are dried before testing, to prevent further decomposition of the material in the soil.

👉 At the crime lab, the forensic soil scientist conducts chemical and physical analysis tests and compares the soil samples from the crime scene location with the soil sample found on the suspect or on his or her belongings.

Microscopic Examination– Microscopic examination (Low Power Microscope) is an initial step in soil comparison. If unique foreign particles are found in soil samples which appeared similar in questioned and control sample then further examination will be needed but, if there is no similarity between these samples then no examination is needed.

Screening Methods– Simple and Rapid screening methods are required for soil analysis. Color Comparison and the determination of Particle Size Distribution can discriminate between questioned and control samples.

Instrumental Analysis-

X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) Methods– XRD methods are arguably the most significant for qualitative, and semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of solid materials in forensic soil science.

Scanning Electron Microscopes and Transmission Electron Microscopes– Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) are frequently used to examine the morphology and chemical composition (via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) of particles magnified by over 1,000,00 times, making these techniques very useful for discrimination.

Elemental Analysis– The following instrumental techniques are frequently used to determine the inorganic constituents in soil samples:

  • XRF ( (X-Ray Fluorescence);
  • Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS);
  • Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA);
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP);
  • Spectrometry, such as; Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Spectrometry (ICP-OES);
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).
  • Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can be used to characterize soil organic constituents, for examples: fats, waxes, proteins, cellulose,hemicellulose, and lignin, etc. in soils.

👉 Another test for soil is Ground-Penetrating Radar Technology (GPR).
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. Forensic soil Scientist use radar energy pulses to look for breaks in the soil’s structure. GPR helps detect anomalies in the soil, where radar energy is sent back to the receiving antennae. But it has the drawback that it is not always accurate, especially with heavy clay soils. In the end, with the use of soil forensics and GPR technology, scientists and investigators can make connections between differences in the soil and collected evidence. By identifying the individual characteristics of soil, investigators can use this knowledge to help solve crimes.

This final stage involves information from microscopic observations to the landscape scale, which may involve:

  • Soil classification and use of soil,
  • Geological,
  • And, vegetation maps; terrain analysis, remote sensing and geophysics, etc.

This combined information is used for geographic sourcing to identify the origin of a sample by placing constraints on the environment from which the sample originated.

Hair analysis

General characteristics of Human Hair

1Colour:White, blonde, light brown, gray brown, dark brown, gray, black, auburn, red.
2Reflectivity:Opaque, gray, translucent, transparent, auburn, clear.
3Length:Fragment, 1”, 1-3”, 3-5”, 5-8”, 8-12”, 12-18”, 18-30”, segment.
4Diameter:20-30 um, 30-40 um, 40-50 um, 50-60 um, 60-70 um, 70-80 um, 80-90 um, 90-100 um, 100-110 um.
5Spatial Configuration:Undulating, kinky, curly, wavy, curved, straight, sinuous
6Tip:Singed, uncut, tapered, rounded, sharp cut, cut at angle, frayed, split, crushed, broken.
7Base:Cut, damaged, pigmented, clear, enlarged, tapering, broken.
8Root:Stretched, absent, bulbous, sheathed, atrophied, follicular, wrenched.
9Cross-section:Polygonal, oval, round oval, undulating, round.
10Pigment:Absent, non-granular, granular, multicolour, chain, massive (clumped), dense, streaked, opaque.
11Medulla:Absent, sparse, scanty, fractional, broken, globular continuous, irregular, double, cellular.
12Cortical fusi:Absent, few, abundant, bunched, linear, central, periphery, roots.
13Cortical cells:Brittle, damaged, fibrous, cellular, invisible, fusiform, ovoid bodies.
14Cosmetic Treatment:Bleached, rinsed, natural, dyed, damaged.
15Cuticle:Ragged, serrated, looped, narrow, layered, wide, cracked, absent, clear, dyed.
16Scales:Flattened, smooth, level, arched, prominent, and serrated.

 Morphological Characteristics of Human Hair for Racial Determination

RaceDiameterCross-sectionPigmentationCuticleUndulation
Negroid60 – 90 umFlatDense & clumpedPrevalent
Caucasoid70 – 100 umOvalEvenly distributedMediumUncommon
Mongoloid90 – 120 umRoundDense AuburnThickNever

 General characteristics of Human Hair from Different Sites

ScalpHead hair, 100 – 1000 mm long, 25-125 um diameter, 0.4 mm/day growth; small root, tapered tip, little diameter variation, various medullation, often with cut tips, may artificially treated.
PubicPudental, 10 – 60 mm long, coarse diameter and prominent diameter, variation and buckling, broad medulla, follicular tags common, asymmetrical cross section twisted and constricted, may be straight, curved or spirally tufted.  
VulvarSecondary pubic hair, finer and shorter than pubic hair, may be abraided.  
ChestPectoral, moderate to considerable diameter variation, long fine arch-like tip, usually longer than pubic hair.
BeardFacial hair, very coarse, 50-300 mm long, large root, irregular structure, often triangular cross section, complex medullation, blunted or razor cut tips, grows 0.4 mm/day.  
AxillaryArm pit, 10-50 mm long, grows 0.3 mm/day, coarse, blunt tip, abraided or frayed, usually straighter than pubic hair, many cortical fusi, sometimes yellowed and bleached.
EyebrowSuperciliary, 1 cm long, 0.16 mm/day growth, curved, relatively coarse for length, smooth curve with punctate tip and large medulla.  
EyelashCiliary, less than 1 cm long, short curved pointed hair.  
LimbLeg and arm hair, 3-6 mm long, fine tips, irregularly medullated, often indistinctly, slightly pigmented.  
EarTragi, pinnae, down  
ButtocksAnal hair, short blunted and abraided hair.  
NoseSimilar to facial hair.  

General Differences between Human Hair and Animal Hair

FeatureHuman HairAnimal Hair
ColourRelatively consistent along shaftOften showing profound colour changes and banding
CortexOccupying most of the width of shaft greater than medullaUsually less than width of medulla
Distribution of pigmentEven, slightly more towards cuticleCentral or denser towards medulla
MedullaLess than one-third width of shaft. Amorphous, mostly not continuous when presentGreater than one-third width of shaft. Continuous, often varying in appearance along shaft, defined structure
ScalesImbricate, similar along shaft from root to tipOften showing variation in structure along shaft from root to tip

Palm Print

Question– What are Palm Prints and what are the uses of it in forensic Science?

Answer– A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand.
The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles (secondary lines), and epidermal ridges which make them as unique as fingerprints.

Uses::-

Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic.

Palm prints, typically made from the butt of the palm.

Palm prints can be found at crime scenes when offender’s gloves slipped at the time of commission of the crime; that may leave partial print of palm.

Image by:- Shakir Hussain (@medical__detective)