Category Archives: Questioned Document

Document Forgery (Questioned Documents)

Forgery is a criminal act that takes place when a person falsifies something with the intent to deceive another person or entity.
There are many kinds of forgery, but all are considered crimes.

Forgery is commonly thought of as the white collar crime of signing another person’s name to a document, like forging signatures on a check, for instance.  Some of the common types of questioned documents subjected to forensic document examination are stated below:

• Wills
• Cheques
• Bank Drafts
• Agreements
• Receipts
• Laminated Documents
• Photocopied Documents
• Stamp Papers
• Passports
• ID Cards
• Licenses
• Currency notes
• Suicide notes

Cases where Forensic Document Examination is Applied

Following are some cases where forensic document examination is applied to analyze different types of questioned documents.

• Identity Theft
• Forgeries
• Counterfeiting
• Suicides
• Homicides
• Fraud
• Kidnappings
• Bank Robberies
• Contested Wills
• Extortion
• Medical Malpractices
• Stalking
• Title/Deed Lawsuits
• Contested Contracts

Types of Forgery

Simple Forgery:

It is very basic and is done with no attempt to follow a known sample of the handwriting or signature. The person will then try to pass off the handwriting or the signature as the original copy of someone else’s original document.

Free Hand Simulation:

When a person attempts free hand simulation, they have a sample of the handwriting or signature to look at. A forger will then try to recreate the shapes and styling of handwriting and signatures.


Traced forgery means reproducing the exact copy of the genuine signature. Traced forgery is executed by using carbon paper, indented tracingtracing paper, transmitted light or scanned image.

Electronic Manipulation:

Document forgery through electronic manipulation is very common now a days. People will use programs such as Photoshop to copy and alter the text in digital documents and with digitally scanned documents.

Signs of Forgery

Slow and methodical strokes

These are one of the most common signs of forgery. When person writing in their own style with their own handwriting, the writing is done fast. When a person is copying a style of writing or a signature, they usually do so in a slow and methodical way, trying to get it right.

No variation in pen pressure 

This is also one of the most common signs of forgery in a document. If someone tries to copy a writing or signature, they will form the characters more carefully, creating even lines with no variation in pen pressure.


Tremor can be an indicator of document forgery. Tremors can happen because someone was nervous when they were writing. Unnatural tremor caused by stress, fear, a medical condition, or other factors.

Substituted pages 

Substitute pages are forgeries found in multi-page documents. A forger may take a page out and try to change text or signatures on the page and then replace the whole page in the document. Substituted pages can be revealed by looking at certain characteristics of the pages throughout the document.

Forgery Cases

Forgery occurs within the United States on a daily basis, but some forgery cases have made national headlines to their severity. Some of the most famous cases of forgery involves art.

The David Stein Forgeries

In the 1960s, David Stein made a living traveling from city to city, selling paintings that he claimed were done by European masters. Since the artists’ signatures were in place, many people fell for the scam. In 1967, one of these artists, Marc Chagall, saw three paintings in a New York City gallery containing his name. He knew these were not his works and he contacted the police. Stein was arrested and spend 22 years in jail. Unfortunately, shortly after his release, he was back to selling fake works of art.

Howard Hughes’ Autobiography

In 1970, a reclusive tycoon named Howard Hughes was the victim of forgery. Due to his isolated lifestyle, he was an easy target for Clifford Irving. Irving, an ordinary man, contacts publishing companies claiming that he had a letter signed by Hughes giving him permission to write his biography. McGraw-Hill, a famous publishing company paid Irving $765,000 to write the book. Irving boldly began writing it, believe that Hughes would never find out since he suffered from a metal disease, and never left his home. Irving was in for a shock two years later, however, as Hughes held a conference letting the world know that he did not know Irving and never gave him permission to write his biography. Irving was arrested and spent 17 months in prison.

MCQS on FORENSIC SCIENCE (Questioned Document)

By @forensicfield

The Forensic Science (Questioned Document) MCQ’s is the resource to provide comprehensive coverage on Questioned Documents. This E-book contains 300 objectives from Questioned Document Section of Forensic Science. (Questioned from previous papers of UGC/NET also included) which will help you to qualify NET/JRF examination as well as other competitive examination related to forensic science (Questioned Document).

Some Objectives given below are the glimpse of MCQ’s on Questioned Documents ::–

1. Which Crime Comes Under White Collar Crime ?

a.) Rape

b.) Forgery

c.) Murder

d.) Theft

2. Questioned Document is sometimes also referred to as :-

a.) Contested Document

b.) Authentic document

c.) Both (a) & (b)

d.) None of the above

3. First Documental Record Of Questioned Document Analysis Occurred In :-

a.) Germany, 1810

b.) Japan, 1810

c.) Germany, 1807

d.) Japan, 1807

4. Who First Published Treatise On Systematic Document Examination?

a.) Francis Galton

b.) Francois Leuton

c.) Francois Demelle

d.) None of the above

5. In Handwriting, A Short Initial Or Terminal Stroke Is Called:-

a.) Hook

b.) Haitus

c.) Spur

d.) Staff

6. What Acronym Is Used To Describe The Computer Program That Helps Analyze Handwriting Samples?

a.) AFIS

b.) FRCI

c.) HWSP

d.) FISH

7. If An Investigator Is To Prepare Standards From A Suspect Typewriter, What Procedure Is Recommended :-

a.) Prepare at least one full copy of the text, in order and word-for-word

b.) To prepare handwritten notes

c.) To carry suspect handwriting samples

d.) To obtain typewriter receipt

8. A Blind Loop In Handwriting Can Be Defined As :-

a.) An incomplete loop formation

b.) A complete loop formation

c.) A loop formation completely filled with ink

d.) A loop formation partially filled with ink

9. When The Wire Mark Is Parallel To The Paper And Is Examined Under Transmitted Light, Then The Paper Is Referred To As :-

a.) Wove Paper

b.) Laid Paper

c.) Simple Paper

d.) All of the above

10. The Science Of Handwriting Comparison Is A :-

a.) Experimental Science

b.) Developmental Science

c.) Demonstrative Science

d.) All of the above

11. The Characteristic Feature Of Wrist Writing Is/Are :–

a.) Tapering terminals

b.) Heavy pen pressure

c.) Irregular curves

d.) All of the above

12. When Heavy Metals Are Part Of Ink In Case Of Secret Writing, Then The Secret Writing Can Be Deciphered Under :-

a.) UV Rays

b.) IR Rays

c.) Soft X-Rays

d.) Transmitted Light

13. Secret Writing Consists Of  :-

a.) Overt Writing

b.) Covert Writing

c.) Invert Writing

d.) Evert Writing

14. When Copper, Zinc And Iron Are Present In Secret Writing Inks, Secret Writing Can Be Deciphered After Treatment With :-

a.) Ammonia

b.) Sulphuric Acid

c.) Copper Sulphate

d.) Potassium Ferrocynide

15. Forger Selects Model Signature Of Writing In :-

a.) Free hand forgery

b.) Copied forgery

c.) Simulated forgery

d.) All of the above

16. Direct Superimposition Is :-

a.) Last step of examination

b.) First step of examination

c.) Both (a) and (b)

d.) None of the above

17. The writing between the lines of an instrument for the purpose of adding a part or correcting what has been written, is known as :-

a.) Obliteration

b.) Interlineations

c.) Addition

d.) Erasure

18. How Many Types Of Erasures Are There?

a.) 1

b.) 2

c.) 3

d.) 4

19. Sharp Erasure Causes :-

a.) Disturbance in the surface finish of the paper

b.) Disturbance in the surface lining of the paper

c.) Both (a) and (b)

d.) None of the above

20. The Commonly Used Chemical Erasure Is :-

a.) Sodium Hypochlorite

b.) Potassium Permanganate

c.) Oxalic Acid

d.) All of the above

21. Which Type Of Ink Is Present In Typewritten Matter?

a.) Water based ink

b.) Oil based ink

c.) Both (a) and (b)

d.) None of the above

22. Which Microscope Is Used To Detect The Enhancement Of Faint Residues From Erased Pencil Line?

a.) Comparison Microscope

b.) Low Power Phase Contrast Microscope

c.) High Power Stereoscopic Microscope

d.) Low Power Stereoscopic Microscope

23. When Oxalic Acid Acts As A Bleaching Agent And Reacts With Ferrous Sulphate, It Gives :-

a.) Brown Color

b.) Yellow Color

c.) No Color

d.) Reddish Tint

24. Indentation Is Also Known As :-

a.) Visible Impression

b.) Latent Impression

c.) Plastic Impression

d.) None of the above

25. ESDA a versatile instrument for the detection of indented writing was developed by :-

a.) Foster

b.) M.A. Casey

c.) D.J. Purtell

d.) Longhetti And Kirk

For more 275 objectives buy the book from Amazon..

For the Answers please watch this you tube video ::



Whether before demonetization or after demonetization, a discussion on fake currency notes has been doing the rounds. Counterfeiting is a major problem in banknotes. To prevent counterfeiting various types of security features has been included in currency notes. These security features make currency difficult to counterfeit. Each currency has special features such as micro lettering, paper quality, intaglio printing, watermark, identification mark, security thread, latent image, optically variably ink, see through register etc.

How to differentiate between Fake currency and Genuine currency?

What are the Punishments related to fake currencies?

Here all above topics have been discussed.

👉 SECURITY FEATURES OF ₹ 2000 & ₹ 500.


1. Color Of Currency

2. Size Of Currency

3. See Through Register

4. Latent Image

5. Devanagari Denomination

6. Portrait of Mahatma Gandhi

7. Microlettering

8. Security Thread

9. Guarantee Clause, Governor’s Signature and RBI Emblem On The Right


11. Number Panel With Numerals Growing From Small To Big On Top Left And Bottom Right Sides

12. Optically Variable ink

13. Ashoka Pillar Emblem

14. Identification Mark

15. Bleed Lines

16. Year Of Printing Of The Note On The Left.

17. Swachh Bharat Logo With Slogan

18. Language Panel Towards The Centre.

19. Motif on The Reverse Side

20. Denomination Numeral In Devnagari On Right

How to Check whether a banknote Is Genuine or Fake?

🧤 Feel :- Intaglio print very simple and efficient checks. Intaglio print leaves with some of the banknote element “Raised” layer of ink rough to the touch.
👀 Look :- When a banknote is held up the light, watermark, security thread and see through register should be visible.
📤 Tilt :- Depending on the viewing angle, a color shifting ink or image on the hologram can be seen.
🔎 Check :- It is necessary to check more than one security feature.

Tips for Detection of Forged Notes

✔ The practice of counting the notes by looking at the Number Panel, font size, thickness and shape of the numbers will automatically register in your memory.
✔ Once you suspect a note you can easily confirm it to be a forged by verifying the Watermark and other security features of the note.
✔ While counting bank notes always look at the FRONT SIDE OF THE NOTES & NUMBER PANEL.
✔ The numbers on the Forged Notes (printed) are mostly small in size.

Legal Provisions Against Counterfeiting

Printing and Circulation of Forged Notes are Offences under Sections “489A” to “489E” of the “INDIAN PENAL CODE” and are punishable in the courts of law by FINE or IMPRISONMENT or BOTH.

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Security Features of Indian Currency