Tag Archives: Physical evidence

fingerprint Impressions

A Fingerprint is an impression which is left by the papillary ridges of a human finger. These impressions are considered one of the most valuable types of physical evidence.

Glass Fracture Patterns

Question: what is importance of Broken Glass at Crime Scene?

Answer: Broken glass at crime scenes can play an important role in crime scene reconstruction, and it can be a very useful evidence. Glass fracture patterns are most often found at the following crime scene:

👉 Criminal Mischief,

👉 Burglary.

👉 Shooting Incidents,

👉 Fire Scenes, etc.

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Question: Which type of information can be obtained from analysis of broken glass?

Answer: Some common types of information can be obtained by studying glass fracture patterns:

1.) Direction of impact force applied (whether it is from inside out or outside in).

2.) Approximate force of impact.

3.) Approximate angle of impact of force.

4.) Determination of the type of glass fracture.

5.) Determination of the sequence of firing, direction of firing, and the type of firearm for the projectile holes present.

5.) Estimation of the fire temperatures, direction of fire travel, and the intensity of heat from the melted glass.

The use of glass fracture patterns in crime scene reconstruction relies on careful recognition, documentation, and study of radial and concentric glass fracture markings. Other information for reconstruction is obtained by analysis of rib marks, spatial relationships, crack marks, and the condition of any melted glass.

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A Closer Look on Forensic Science

By @forensicfield

The “A Closer Look on Forensic Science” is the resource to provide comprehensive coverage on Forensic Science. This E-book will help you to gain knowledge about every aspect of Forensic Science, such as; History, Branches, Work, Organization, Crime Scene Investigation, Modus Operandi Bureau, Evidences, etc. This book is going to present an overview of Forensic Science so you will know what is it, why is it, what is the use of it, what is the limitations and much more. This e-book has contains basic knowledge of Forensic Science. Every word that confused you before is going to be solved after reading it.

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Physical Evidence

Sources:A Closer Look On Forensic Science written by Archana Singh


✔Physical evidence is any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or perpetrator.
✔Anything can be physical evidence which can connect crime scene to criminal.
✔“In simple words to count physical evidences cannot be possible.”

🔦Types of Physical Evidences

Body fluids or materials found at a crime scene might include ::
🔘In case of poison main parts of body such as Liver, Gall bladder, Brain, Kidney, Small intestine, Pancreas, Uterus, Heart and Lungs should be analyzed.
🔘Blood, Semen, Saliva and Vomit in dry or liquid state.
🔘Hair, Nails, Skeleton, Bone.

🌴WOOD, etc.

🚫EXPLOSIVE- any object that has a residue of an explosive is useful.
💊DRUGS, etc.

📍Cover, etc.
🔑Other arms, such as;
🏉Stone, etc.


Examinations and comparisons conducted by document examiners can be diverse and may involve the following:

  • Typewriters, photocopiers, printers, fax machines.
  • Handwriting (cursive / printing) and signatures.
  • Alterations, additions, erasures, obliterations.
  • Indentation detection and/or decipherment.
  • Cheque writers, rubber stamps, markers.
  • Physical matching.
  • Ink, pencil, paper

⚫Any type of petroleum substance which is likely related to criminal act.
Such as kerosene oil, petrol, etc.

⭕Tool mark as any impression, cut, gouge, or abrasion caused by a tool coming into contact with another.
⭕They consist of small, commonly microscopic, indentations, ridges, and irregularities present on the tool itself. For example, the tip of a screwdriver is never perfectly flat, but shows small ridges along its edge.

✴Finger prints
✴Tier marks
✴Shoeprints etc.

🧤In Many Cases, Clothes And Rope Are Used In Many Forms.
📜Natural fibers
📜Artificial fibers

10. SOIL:
🔅Which stick with Tiers, Mudgaurd, Shoes, Clothes, etc.

11. GLASS:
🔎Pieces of glass ,such as
🔎Any Window/ Glass Door
🔎Glass bottle


◾Any other substances found on crime scene not described before in previous slides should be considered of this category.
◾For ex after collision of new building or bridge, sample of debris is physical evidence.
◾Things which have numbers. Like, engine, chesis, etc.

🔦Information that can be obtained from Physical Evidence

⚀The Latin term corpus delicti refers to the principle that there must be some proof that a crime has been committed before a person can be convicted that crime.
⚀Corpus delicti literally means body of crimes.

📍Identification of suspect:
Fingerprints are valuable evidence to identify and individualize suspect.

📍Linking suspect with victim:
At the time of crime blood, hair, fiber, etc. can be exchange between suspect and victim which establishes connection.

📍Linking of suspect with scene of crime:
Fingerprints, shoeprint or footprint, blood, semen, fiber, hair, tool marks, tier impression, bullet, soil ,etc. are evidences which can establish links from suspect to scene of crime.

📍Providing investigative leads:
Physical evidences leads police officers in criminal investigation.

📍Information about modus operandi:
Criminals, specially habitual criminals have same type of crime manner. Same criminal pattern of behavior helps to caught criminals.

📍Verification of statement:
Statement of person(victim, witness, criminal) can be tested After examination and reconstruction of physical evidence.

🔦Nature of Physical Evidence

A. Identification by class characteristics-
Every item has a measurable features of an item that indicate a restricted group source based on design factors determined prior to manufacture.
✔Physical evidences first identify by its class characteristics.

B. Comparison and individualism-
Marks on an object produced by the random imperfection or irregularities on the surfaces of the tools used to manufacture the object.
✔Individual characteristic confirm the object.

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“A Closer Look On Forensic Science”