Physical Evidence

Sources:“A Closer Look On Forensic Science“ written by Archana Singh

🔩WHAT IS PHYSICAL EVIDENCE?

✔Physical evidence is any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or perpetrator.
✔Anything can be physical evidence which can connect crime scene to criminal.
✔“In simple words to count physical evidences cannot be possible.”

🔩Types of Physical Evidences

1.BODY MATERIAL:
Body fluids or materials found at a crime scene might include ::
🔘In case of poison main parts of body such as Liver, Gall bladder, Brain, Kidney, Small intestine, Pancreas, Uterus, Heart and Lungs should be analyzed.
🔘Blood, Semen, Saliva and Vomit in dry or liquid state.
🔘Hair, Nails, Skeleton, Bone.

2. BOTANICAL MATTER:
đŸ„ŠPLANTS
🍇FRUITS
🍉SEEDS
🌿LEAFS
🌮WOOD, etc.

3. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE:
đŸš«EXPLOSIVE- any object that has a residue of an explosive is useful.
⚫ALCOHOL
⭕PAINT
💊DRUGS, etc.

4. WEAPONS:
✔Firearms
✔Pistol
✔Revolver
✔Gun
✔Bullet
📍Cover, etc.
🔑Other arms, such as;
🗡Knives
⛏Axe
đŸčArrow
⚔Sword
🔹Hammer
✂Scissors
🏉Stone, etc.

5. DISPUTED DOCUMENTS:

Examinations and comparisons conducted by document examiners can be diverse and may involve the following:

  • Typewriters, photocopiers, printers, fax machines.
  • Handwriting (cursive / printing) and signatures.
  • Alterations, additions, erasures, obliterations.
  • Indentation detection and/or decipherment.
  • Cheque writers, rubber stamps, markers.
  • Physical matching.
  • Ink, pencil, paper

6. PETROLEUM SUBSTANCE:
⚫Any type of petroleum substance which is likely related to criminal act.
Such as kerosene oil, petrol, etc.

7. TOOL MARKS:
⭕Tool mark as any impression, cut, gouge, or abrasion caused by a tool coming into contact with another.
⭕They consist of small, commonly microscopic, indentations, ridges, and irregularities present on the tool itself. For example, the tip of a screwdriver is never perfectly flat, but shows small ridges along its edge.

8. IMPRESSION:
✮Finger prints
✮Tier marks
✮Footprints
✮Shoeprints etc.

9. FIBERS AND TEXTILE:
đŸ§€In Many Cases, Clothes And Rope Are Used In Many Forms.
📜Natural fibers
📜Artificial fibers
📜Threads
📜Ropes
📜Clothes

10. SOIL:
🔅Sand
🔅Clay
🔅Slit
🔅Peat
🔅Loam
🔅Chalk
🔅Which stick with Tiers, Mudgaurd, Shoes, Clothes, etc.

11. GLASS:
🔎Pieces of glass ,such as
🔎Any Window/ Glass Door
🔎Glass bottle
🔎Watch
🔎Spectacles

12. OBJECTS OF CRIMINAL:
📃IDENTITY CARD
📒DIARY

13. OTHER EVIDENCE:
â—ŸAny other substances found on crime scene not described before in previous slides should be considered of this category.
â—ŸFor ex after collision of new building or bridge, sample of debris is physical evidence.
â—ŸThings which have numbers. Like, engine, chesis, etc.

🔩Information that can be obtained from Physical Evidence

📍CORPUS DELICTI:
⚀The Latin term corpus delicti refers to the principle that there must be some proof that a crime has been committed before a person can be convicted that crime.
⚀Corpus delicti literally means body of crimes.

📍Identification of suspect:
Fingerprints are valuable evidence to identify and individualize suspect.

📍Linking suspect with victim:
At the time of crime blood, hair, fiber, etc. can be exchange between suspect and victim which establishes connection.

📍Linking of suspect with scene of crime:
Fingerprints, shoeprint or footprint, blood, semen, fiber, hair, tool marks, tier impression, bullet, soil ,etc. are evidences which can establish links from suspect to scene of crime.

📍Providing investigative leads:
Physical evidences leads police officers in criminal investigation.

📍Information about modus operandi:
Criminals, specially habitual criminals have same type of crime manner. Same criminal pattern of behavior helps to caught criminals.

📍Verification of statement:
Statement of person(victim, witness, criminal) can be tested After examination and reconstruction of physical evidence.

🔩Nature of Physical Evidence

A. Identification by class characteristics-
Every item has a measurable features of an item that indicate a restricted group source based on design factors determined prior to manufacture.
✔Physical evidences first identify by its class characteristics.

B. Comparison and individualism-
Marks on an object produced by the random imperfection or irregularities on the surfaces of the tools used to manufacture the object.
✔Individual characteristic confirm the object.

Know More About Physical Evidences in Detail; Read

“A Closer Look On Forensic Science”

error: Content is protected !!