Introduction To Drug Classes

According to the Controlled Substances Act, there are five classes of drug:

  1. Narcotics
  2. Depressants
  3. Stimulants
  4. Hallucinogens
  5. Anabolic Steroids

Controlled substances, with the exception of anabolic steroids, are misused to affect mood, thinking, and sensation by acting on the central nervous system.

Some of these drugs reduce discomfort, anxiety, or sadness. Some invigorate while others make you drowsy.

Classes of Drug

1. Narcotics

The term “narcotic,” also known as “opioids,” is derived from the Greek word for stupor and originally applied to a wide range of drugs that numbed the senses and reduced pain. The term “narcotic” now refers to opium, its derivatives, and its semi-synthetic alternatives, despite the fact that some individuals still use it to describe all drugs. “Opioid” is a more modern word for these medications with less ambiguity attached to them. Narcotics/opioids can be swallowed, smoked, sniffed, or injected.

Examples include the prescription medicines OxyContin®, Vicodin®, codeine, morphine, methadone, and fentanyl as well as the illegal narcotic heroin.

All naturally occurring opioids come from the Papaver somniferum poppy, but synthetic opioids, such as meperidine, fentanyl, and methadone, are created exclusively in laboratories. Heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone are examples of semi-synthetic opioids that are produced from naturally occurring opium compounds like morphine and codeine. Teens can get drugs through friends, relatives, pharmacies, nursing homes, hospitals, hospices, physicians, and the Internet, among other places.

Street names for various narcotics/opioids includes Smack, Horse, Mud, Brown Sugar, Junk, Black Tat, Big H, Paregoric, Dover’s Powder, MPTP (New Heroin), Hillbilly Heroin, Lean or Purple Drank, OC, Ox, Oxy, Oxycotton, Sippin Syrup.

2. Depressants

Any drug that depresses the body’s central nervous system is a depressant. Drugs known as central nervous system (CNS) depressants reduce brain activity, making them useful for treating a variety of diseases. These medications work by altering the neurotransmitter GABA, which has negative consequences like sleepiness, relaxation, and reduced inhibition. Depressants of the central nervous system are used to treat a wide range of conditions, such as insomnia, anxiety, panic attacks, stress, sleep problems, pain, and seizures. The three main categories of CNS depressants are tranquillizers, sedatives, and hypnotics.

Drugs that are classified as CNS depressants include:

  • Alcohol
  • Barbiturates
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Many Sleeping Pills
  • Opioids

When someone uses too much of these drugs at once or mixes depressants with alcohol or other substances, their heart and respiration might become too sluggish to function, which can result in death. Addiction to these drugs can be hard to break. When trying to stop using depressants, someone who is reliant on them may have harmful withdrawal symptoms. A person consuming more barbiturates than benzodiazepines is more likely to have life-threatening withdrawal symptoms depending on the type of depressant they are taking. Barbiturates and benzodiazepines, however, can also result in symptoms that are more severe than those brought on by certain other types of medicines. Among them are sleeplessness, nauseousness, psychosis, seizures, and tremors, to mention a few.

3. Stimulants

Drugs in the stimulant category hasten the transmission of signals between the brain and body. They may awaken, alert, boost confidence, or energise a person.

Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine are examples of stimulants. Overstimulation brought on by high dosages might result in agitation, hostility, panic attacks, seizures, migraines, stomach pains, and paranoia. The prolonged use of strong stimulants may have negative repercussions.

Other names of stimulants are Uppers, beans, pep pills, speed, dexies, smart pills.

4. Hallucinogen

Hallucinogens are substances that significantly distort reality by altering the user’s perception and thought processes. These drugs have a very different impact on perception than many other kinds of drugs. Many believe that these substances’ effects can lead to new or even extended states of consciousness, and some people do genuinely experience synesthesia (mixed sensory experiences, such as seeing sounds or hearing colors). These medicines can also cause hallucinations, changed perceptions of time, and dissociative experiences, which include a lack of connection to one’s body or reality.

The two subgroups of hallucinogens are:

  • 1.   Classic hallucinogens and,
  • 2.   Dissociative drugs.

The common side effects of classic hallucinogens include sensory enhancement, altered perception of time, and visual and aural hallucinations. Dissociative drugs cause emotions of detachment, such as derealization (the perception that reality is not real) and depersonalization (the perception that one is not physically connected to one’s own body).

Some of the more common hallucinogens include:

  • LSD.
  • Psilocybin (magic mushrooms).
  • Peyote (mescaline).
  • DMT.
  • Ketamine (Special K).
  • PCP (phencyclidine).

Because hallucinogens don’t have a large potential for physical dependency, users don’t often suffer withdrawal symptoms after they stop using them. Hallucinogens aren’t often addicted, but people can still use them in a way that interferes with their regular life. The term “addiction” is no longer used clinically in the diagnosis process due to its ambiguity.

5. Anabolic Steroids

Drugs called anabolic steroids aid in the development and maintenance of muscular tissue. They are artificial hormones that mimic testosterone and other sex hormones in men.

Anabolic steroids can be used to cure muscle loss brought on by conditions like cancer and AIDS as well as hormonal problems associated with adolescence.

Non-medical uses of anabolic steroids include boosting lean muscle mass and developing power and endurance. This only functions when combined with certain exercise and nutrition plans. Additionally, steroids can speed up injury recovery and help people lose weight. Anabolic steroids are categorised as medications that improve performance and appearance. People who use these medications do so with the goal of increasing their athletic ability or physical appearance.

Other names of anabolic steroids are Roids, gear, juice, stackers, gym candy, arnolds, pumpers, weight trainers, weight gainers.

Anabolic steroids are medications available only by prescription that are occasionally taken against medical advice in order to achieve muscle building and enhance sports performance. They may result in major negative effects and addiction if taken in this manner.

Drug Abuse

The chance of that substance being misused increases if you experience euphoria (intensely enjoyable sensations).

Drug abuse is the use of controlled drugs beyond of what is considered to be acceptable use. In other words, using these medications outside the bounds of appropriate medical care is drug abuse.

The majority of illegal drugs have the potential to cause physical or psychological dependency. In order to prevent withdrawal symptoms, a drug must be administered continuously if physical dependence has developed in the body as a result of frequent usage.

The phrase “psychological dependence” describes the sensation of having a drug “need” or “craving.” Many people who are mentally dependent on a substance believe they cannot function without continuing to use it. Physical dependence ends sooner than psychological dependence, and those who are mentally reliant are more likely to relapse.

It is crucial to remember that the effects a medicine produces can vary greatly and rely heavily on the dosage and method of administration.

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