Common Types of Drugs

Drugs are chemical substances that affect the functioning of our body. Some are drugs that are prescribed by doctors to aid patients.

Drugs may heighten or dull one’s perceptions, alter one’s level of alertness or sleepiness, and even reduce physical discomfort. Abused substances enter the bloodstream when consumed (typically by ingesting, inhaling, or injecting). They go to the brain and other sections of the body from there.

Amphetamine-type stimulants, coca/cocaine, cannabis, hallucinogens, opiates, and tranquil hypnotics are among the drugs under international regulation. Many medicines have the potential to impair a person’s cognition and judgement, bringing various health risks. There are a plethora of addictive drugs on the market.

Drugs are categorised according to how and where they are often used:

1. Alcohol,

2. Benzodiazepines,

3. Opiates,

4. Illicit drugs,

5. Sleeping pills, and,

6. Stimulants.

Drugs may also be categorised based on how they affect our bodies:

1. Depressants

2. Hallucinogens

3. Stimulants


Depressants reduce the ability of the central nervous system to function.
They delay the transmission of signals between the brain and the body, although they are not always depressing. Slower communications affect focus and coordination, as well as capacity to react to what’s going on in the surrounding. Small doses of antidepressants may help to feel more calm, serene, and unconstrained. Drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as unconsciousness and death, can occur with higher dosages.

Examples of Depressants are:

👉 Alcohol

👉 Benzodiazepines (minor tranquillisers such as Valium)

👉 Cannabis

👉 GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate)

👉 Ketamine

👉 Opioids (heroin, morphine, codeine)


Hallucinogens are a class of medications that affect a person’s perception of their surroundings as well as their own thoughts and feelings. Hallucinogens alter perceptions and cause people to see, hear, taste, smell, or feel things in unusual ways. these cause hallucinations by altering reality perception. For example, person could see or hear things that aren’t there, or have weird thoughts or sensations. In small doses, a sensation of floating, numbness, confusion, disorientation, or dizziness may develop. Higher dosages can cause hallucinations, memory loss, agitation, anxiety, raised heart rate, paranoia, panic, and aggression, among other things.

Examples of Hallucinogen include:

👉 Cannabis

👉 Ketamine


👉 tetrahydrocannabinol

👉 LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

👉 Psilocybin (magic mushrooms)

👉 PCP (phencyclidine)


Stimulants improve the functioning of the central nervous system.
It speed up the transfer of information from the brain to the rest of the body. They have the ability to make a person feel more awake, aware, confident, or energised. These can cause faster heartbeat, high blood pressure, and body temperature rise, leading to heat exhaustion or even heat stroke, as well as a loss of appetite, irritation, and sleeplessness. At larger dosages, anxiety, panic, convulsions, stomach aches, and paranoia are all possible adverse effects.

Examples of stimulants include:

👉 Amphetamines (speed and ice)

👉 Caffeine

👉 Cocaine

👉 Ecstasy (MDMA — methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

👉 Nicotine (Tobacco)

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