Category Archives: Forensic Medicine



Cannabis is derived from the cannabis plant (cannabis sativa). It grows wild in many of the tropical and temperate areas of the world.

Cannabis is a drug that comes from Indian hemp plants such as Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica.


  • Cannabis is a depressant drug.
  • They slow down the activity of the central nervous system and the messages going between the brain and the body.
  • When large doses of cannabis are taken it may also produce hallucinogenic effects.

Cannabis Appearance

Leaves from the cannabis plant are bright green and have a distinctive shape with five or seven leaflets. The flowering tops and upper leaves are covered in a sticky resin.

Cannabis Also Known As:

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The main active ingredient in cannabis is called delta-9 tetrahydro-cannabinol, commonly known as THC. This is the part of the plant that gives the “high.”There is a wide range of THC potency between cannabis products.

Cannabis Is Used In Three Main Forms:

1. Marijuana

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  • Marijuana is the most common and least potent form of cannabis. Marijuana is the dried leaves and flowers of the plant.
  • It is smoked in hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), or in a pipe (a bong).

2. Hashish

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  • Hashish (“hash”) is dried cannabis resin, usually in the form of a small block. The concentration of THC in hashish is higher than in marijuana, producing stronger effects.
  • It is usually added to tobacco and smoked, or baked and eaten in foods such as hash cookies.

3. Hash Oil.

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  • Hash oil is a thick, oily liquid, golden brown to black in colour, which is extracted from cannabis. Hash oil is the strongest form of cannabis.
  • It is usually spread on the tip or paper of a cigarette and then smoked.

Short-Term Effects of Cannabis

  • Dryness of the eyes, mouth, and throat;
  • Feeling of well-being;
  • Talkativeness;
  • Drowsiness;
  • Loss of inhibitions;
  • Decreased nausea;
  • Increased appetite;
  • Loss of co-ordination;
  • Bloodshot eyes;
  • Anxiety and paranoia.

Long-Term Effects of Cannabis

  • Increased risk of respiratory diseases associated with smoking, including cancer;
  • Decreased memory and learning abilities;
  • Decreased motivation in areas such as study, work or concentration.

Medical Uses

Cannabis has been used for medical purposes for many centuries. It has been reported that cannabis may be useful to help conditions such as:

  • Wasting And Severe Weight Loss, In People With HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Or Anorexia Nervosa, As It May Be Used As An Appetite Stimulant.
  • Nausea And Vomiting, Particularly When Associated With Chemotherapy.
  • Pain Relief, For Example In People With Cancer And Arthritis.
  • Relief From Symptoms Of Some Neurological Disorders That Involve Muscle Spasms, Including Multiple Sclerosis And Spinal Cord Injury.
  • Asthma.
  • Epilepsy
  • Glaucoma

Cannabis is consumed in many different ways:

  • Vaporizer, which heats any form of cannabis to 165–190 °C (329–374 °F), causing the active ingredients to evaporate into A vapor without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 157 °C (315 °F) at 760 mmhg pressure).
  • Smoking, which typically involves burning and inhaling vaporized cannabinoids (“smoke”) from small pipes, bongs (portable versions of hookahs with A water chamber), paper-wrapped joints or tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts, etc.
  • Cannabis tea, which contains relatively small conc. Of THC because THC is an oil (lipophilic) and is only slightly water-soluble (with A solubility of 2.8 mg per liter).
  • Cannabis is added as an ingredient to one of A variety of foods, including butter and baked goods. In india it is commonly made into A beverage, bhang.
  • Capsules, typically containing cannabis oil, and other dietary supplement products.

Substance prepare from cannabis:

  • Marijuana

Marijuana or marihuana (herbal cannabis), consists of the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female Cannabis plant. This is the most widely consumed form, containing 3% to 20% THC, with reports of up-to 33% THC.

  • Kief

Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes, which can be sifted from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish. The word “kif” derives from colloquial Arabic كيف kēf/kīf, meaning pleasure.

  • Hashish

Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a conc. resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves. or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from. It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or ‘vaped’. The term “rosin hash” refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.

  • Tincture of cannabis

Cannabinoids can be extracted from cannabis plant matter using high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create a tincture, often referred to as “green dragon”. Nabiximols is a branded product name from a tincture manufacturing pharmaceutical company.

  • Hash oil

Hash oil is a resinous matrix of cannabinoids obtained from the Cannabis plant by solvent extraction, formed into a hardened or viscous mass. Hash oil can be the most potent of the main cannabis products because of its high level of psychoactive compound per its volume, which can vary depending on the plant’s mix of essential oils and psychoactive compounds.

Detection Of Cannabis In Body Fluids

  • THC and its major (inactive) metabolite, THC-COOH, can be measured in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal offense.
  • Urine contains predominantly THC-COOH, while hair, oral fluid and sweat contain primarily THC. Blood may contain both substances, with the relative amounts dependent on the recency and extent of usage.
  • The concentrations obtained from such analyses can often be helpful in distinguishing active use from passive exposure, elapsed time since use, and extent or duration of use.
  • These tests cannot, however, distinguish authorized cannabis smoking for medical purposes from unauthorized recreational smoking.

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By @forensicfield

Introduction (Matrix or Matrices)

📌Matrix or matrices is the material in animal or plant cells, in which more specialized structures are embedded, and a specific part of the mitochondrion.

📌Any material substance in the universe wherein the active constituent may be dispersed, accumulated, left, absorbed or chemically bound.

📌The internal structure of connective tissues is an extracellular matrix.

👉 Why are matrices use?

👉 Matrices use for the individual identification of the criminal or victim.

Matrices are classified in Three types:

  • Biological
  • Non- Biological Matrices
  • Viscera


  • Stomach Contents
  • Gastric Lavage
  • Intestinal Contents
  • Stool
  • Viscera
  • Brain Matter
  • Faecal Matter
  • Vomit
  • Urine
  • Saliva
  • Bone
  • Hair
  • Blood
  • Skin
  • Nails

Non- Biological Matrices

  • Water
  • Vegetables
  • Tea
  • Milk and milk products
  • Coffee
  • Food and Food products
  • Wines
  • Fruits
  • Drinks
  • Cereals 
  • Pulses
  • Cooked materials
  • Remnants or traces of poison in small container, etc.


Internal Organs, such as:

  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Stomach
  • Uterus
  • Heart
  • Lungs
  • Intestine
  • Gall bladder
  • Brain, etc.

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By @forensicfield

What is Doping ?

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations.

  1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
  2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method.
  3. Refusing to submit to sample  after being noticed.
  4. Failure to file athlete whereabouts information & missed tests.
  5. Tampering with any part of the doping control process.
  6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method.
  7. Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to a athlete
  8. Trafficking a prohibited substance or method

Why sports performers take drugs?

  • Better results lead to better sponsors and endorsement contracts
  • Desire to be the best at all costs; winning brings financial rewards
  • Making the most of a short sporting life
  • To recover from injury more quickly or to mask pain
  • Influenced by others
  • Desire to meet expectations of others
  • Natural ability isn’t good enough

History of Doping

  • Ancient Greeks ate plants to try to improve performance at the Olympic Games.
  • 1886: Fatality of an English cyclist using the stimulant trimethyl.
  • 1904 Olympic Games: Some American cyclists used strychnine.
  • 1976 Montreal Olympic Games dominated by East German women‘s swim team.

Historical Efforts to Stop Doping

  • 1983:    The USOC Drug Control program was established (widespread perception that the USOC was helping athletes beat testing programs).
  • 1950s:  IOC passed a resolution against doping.
  • 1967: IOC established a medical commission to control drug use.
  • 1988:    Summer Olympic Games in Seoul: Ben Johnson.’’


A drug is any chemical substance you take that affects the way your body works.

Most drugs are developed for medical purposes, but doping means taking drugs to improve sporting performance.

It is a growing problem in sport.

Classes of Banned Substances

  • Stimulants
  • Narcotics Analgesics
  • Diuretics
  • Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid
  • Beta-adrenergic blockers

Why are they banned?

  • Health Concerns – some drugs used by athletes can have serious effects on an individual’s health. e.g. Anabolic Steroids
  • Legal Concerns – some drugs are banned because they are illegal in general society. e.g. Cocaine
  • Ethical Concerns – The use of certain drugs which do not pose a major health risk, but may offer a performance advantage over other athletes. This may be considered cheating. e.g. Beta Blockers

Anabolic agents

Anabolic agents are the most commonly used drugs in sports. They mimic testosterone, a male hormone


  • Stanozolol
  • Clenbuterol
  • Boldenone
  • Nandrolone
  • Testosterone

Effects can include:

  • Increases muscle mass
  • Develops bone growth
  • Increases strength,
  • Rapid improvement
  • Increases aggression

Side-effects can include



Stimulants are the second most commonly used drugs in sports.

Examples of these drugs include: amphetamines, ephedrine, cocaine and caffeine.

Effects can include:

  • Reduces feelings of tiredness so a person can train for longer.
  • Stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) making people more alert

Side-effects can include:

  • User becomes irritable and is unable to sleep.
  • High blood pressure
  • Irregular and faster heartbeat.


Narcotic analgesics are addictive drugs & are usually injected into the blood stream. Ex: heroin, methadone, morphine & codeine.

Effects can include:

  • Reduces the sensation of the central nervous system.
  • Masks pain

Side-effects can include:

  • Loss Of Concentration
  • Loss Of Coordination


Diuretics are drugs which increase the rate of water loss from the body. Ex: Furosemide, Triamterene & Chlortalidone.

Effects can include

  • Diuretics are used in sports where there are weight categories to ‘make the weight’.
  • Speeds up work of kidneys by producing more urine. This reduces fluid retention, which causes rapid weight loss.

Side-effects can include:

  • Dehydration and possibly dizziness.
  • Headaches, nausea & fatigue.
  • Kidney illness can develop.
  • Muscle cramps.


Beta-blockers are used as a relaxant.

Examples– atenolol and nodolol.

Side effect

However, they can reduce the heart rate so much that there is a danger that the heart may stop.

Effects of Substances -BLOOD DOPING

  • A procedure which involves injecting extra blood, red blood cells, artificial oxygen carriers and related blood products into the body as a means of increasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
  • Flaws in technique can lead to complications ranging from bacterial infections to fatal reactions.
  • The sharing of needles or blood can lead to diseases such as hepatitis or HIV.

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