Syllabus of Forensic Physics (FACT and FACT Plus Syllabus)


Forensic Physics

1) General Guidelines for Physical Evidence Collection

Evidence collection from crime scene, victim & deceased in cases of – Homicide Investigation; Investigation of – Death due to fall from height, sexual offences and sex related homicide, Hanging (suicidal, accidental and homicidal), Paint, Glass, Soil, Fibre, Metals,

Sources of Exhibits, Goals of Evidence Packaging- Protection of Evidence from possible hazards; Elements of Packaging Evidence – Packing Material, Sealing of Evidence; Precautions, General Directions, Directions for Specific type of Exhibits – Weapons and tools, Hair and Fibres, Dust or Soil, Arson Cases and Cases of Burning, Tool Marks.

2) Analytical Instruments & Techniques of Forensic Physics

Microscope, Compound Microscope, Polarized Light Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Comparison Microscope, Stereo-zoom Microscope. Transmission Electron Microscope, Video-zoom Microscope. Scanning Electron Microscope – Energy Dispersive X-Ray. Atomic Force Microscope.

Introduction to spectrophotometry, Interaction of electromagnetic radiations with matter: phenomena of absorption, emission, reflection, fluorescence, phosphorescence.

Detection of radiations: Photographic detectors, thermal detectors, photoelectric detectors.

Basic concepts of atomic spectra, energy levels, quantum numbers, designation of states, selection rules, atomic spectra.

Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry: sampling devices, Lambert and Beers Law, calibration of instrument, Infrared spectrophotometry, High Resolution. Detectors. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra, spectra of polyatomic molecules.

Elements of X-ray spectrometry: Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), wavelength Dispersive X-ray analysis (WDX), X-ray diffraction, Auger emission spectroscopy and applications.

Radio chemical techniques: Basic principles and theory introduction about nuclear reactions and radiations, Neutron sources, Neutron Activation Analysis. Basics of Electrostatic

Effect of Chemical Structure and solvent on absorption spectra, qualitative and quantitative analysis and limitations. Applications in forensic chemistry and toxicology.

Infrared spectrophotometry: Basic principle, components, Sample handling, Dispersive and Fourier transform spectrophotometry, (FTIR). Qualitative analysis and interpretation of IR spectra, correlation of infrared spectra with molecular structure and applications in forensic chemistry and toxicology.

Raman Spectroscopy: Basic principles, Instrumentation, sample handling and illumination, structural analysis, polarization measurements and Dispersive & FT analysis and Applications in Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology. Advantage of Raman over IR and vice versa, Role of microscope.

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS): Instrumentation, interference in AAS, background correction methods, graphite furnace quantitative analysis and applications. Detection limit and sensitivity.

Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES): Instrumentation and techniques, arc/spark emission, ICP-AES, comparison of ICP vs AAS methods, quantitative analysis, ESCA and its applications.

Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy: Types of sources, structural factors, instrumentation, comparison of luminescence and UV-visible absorption methods and applications.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Basic principles, theory and Instrumentation and applications.

3) Pattern Evidence

Tool marks– Types, Class and Individual Characteristics, Comparisons, Impression Marks, Compression Marks, Striated Marks, Combination of Impression and Striated Marks, Repetitive Marks, Materials for making Test Tool Marks, Methods of preparation of Test Tool Marks, Comparison of test and evidence tool marks, Rubber Stamp Impressions, Metallic Seal Impressions, Embossed Impressions and Indentation marks, Mechanical Impressions.

Cast, Engraved and Punched Marks – Methods of their restoration.

Glass: types of glass and their composition, manufacturing of various types of glass and their properties. Soil- Formation, Types, Composition and physical properties. Paints- Composition, Types, Manufacturing and physical properties of paints.

Fibre- Types, Constituents &their forensic importance.

Impression Evidence: Types of Impression Evidence, Significance of Impression Evidence. Tyre Marks Comparison. Skid marks, Serial numbers restoration.

Audio: Basics of sound, human ear and voice, Sound recording and reproduction, Forensic significance of voice.

Basic principles and techniques of black & white and colour photography; Camera and lenses, exposing, development & printing, different kinds of developers & fixers, modern developments in photography; Digital photography, Working of SLR & DSLR Cameras and basics of Digital Imaging Photography, photo-morphing, Crime Scene photography, Laboratory photography; Brief about speaker identification & tape authentication techniques and their applications in forensic science, Data Mining Techniques.

Videography: types of video cameras, recording of playback technique of analog video, recording and playback technique of analog video, basics of video codecs and file formats.

Restoration: Restoration of erased numbers, methods of marking-cast, punch and engraved, methods used for removal of serial numbers, theory behind number restoration, restoration of marks on cast iron, Aluminum, brass, wood, leather etc., chemical methods of restoration (etching), reagents used for various metals, electrolytic methods of restoration-reagents used, ultrasonic cavitation for restoration, magnetic particle method for restoration, other methods of restoration, laser etched serial numbers and bar codes and their restoration, recording of restored marks.

4) Essentials of Mathematics & Statistics In Forensic Physics

Number systems and their Representations, Units of measurement and their conversion, Dealing with Uncertainties in measurement. Types of Data, Basic concepts of frequency distribution, Measure of Central Values – Mean, Median and Mode, Measures of Dispersion, Range, Mean Deviation and Standard Deviation, Correlation and Regression Analysis.

Variance – Coefficient of variation, Moment, Coefficient of Regression, Correlated Measurements.

Probability Theory: Overview and Basic terms – Events, Trials, Mutually Exclusive events, Favorable Events, Exhaustive Events etc., Baye’s theorem, Addition and Multiplication theorem, Conditional Probability, Binomial Probability distribution, Normal Distribution, Hyper-geometric distribution, Applications – Matching of hair evidence, Uniqueness of Fingerprints,

Tests of Hypothesis – Test of Significance of attributes, sample test, t-test and comparison of datasets, Paired Test, Chi-Square test, F-test for equality of variance, Large sample test, Normal Test, Pearson’s ꭓ2 test. Discriminating Power and Evidence Significance: Derivation, Evaluation of evidence, Transfer of evidence – Likelihood Ratio, Probability of guilt, Correspondence probabilities, Weight of Evidence.

5) Forensic Voice Authentication

Physics of sound: waves and sound, analysis and synthesis of complex waves, Human and non-human utterances, anatomy of vocal tract, vocal formants, analysis of vocal sound, frequencies and overtones

Electronics of Audio Recording, Transmission and Playback devices, noise and distortion, voice storage and preservation

Forensic Linguistics: Phonetics, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Stylistics, Pragmatics, Script, orthography and graphology, Difference between language and speech, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, Sociolinguistics, Scientific approaches; Reliability and admissibility of evidence in the court, linguistic profile, language register

Discourse Analysis: Connivance, acceptance, listening feedback and rejection in the context of Mens-Rea, Narrative, Dialectology, Linguistic variety as a geographical marker, Idiolects and speaker characterization, Phonology, Morphology and Word formation processes as individual linguistic abilities

Various approaches in Forensic Speaker Identification, Instrumental Analysis of speech sample, Interpretation of result, Statistical interpretation of probability scale, Objective/Subjective methods, discriminating tests, closed test, open test, likelihood ratio calculation, Concept of test and error in Speaker Identification, case studies.

Techniques and Best Practices for examination of Audio recording authentication and case studies.

Automatic speaker identification and verification system based on fuzzy logics, neural network, MPCC etc., Voice Biometrics

VoIP and other modes of speech communication and their forensic analysis

6) Forensic Video Analysis

Introduction to video technology: electronic photography, scanning, synchronizing the analog signal, Digital signal processing, color video, Digital television standard, HD

Video, digital scopes, compression, image acquisition and recording formats, optical media, time code, audio for video, displays, Types of video Camera

Basics of CCTV, scope recognizing CCTV evidence & its nature, types of DVRs, DVR recording, evidence, best practices of CCTV evidence retrieval and storage at scene of crime and laboratory, challenges and precaution at the scene of crime, evidence handling procedure, legal issues, recommended equipments needed.

Watermarking, Interlacing, De-interlacing, Double Compression, Duplication, Re-projection

Forensic analysis: Best practices of collection, recovery, enhancement, analysis and interpretation of video evidence

Facial image recognition, vehicle registration plate image enhancement, foreign object detection, Authentication of Video evidence, video source identification techniques, Case studies

7) Criminalistics and Forensic Engineering

Soil: Physical examinations of soil evidence, Soil mechanics, Structure & Composition, Baking, Compaction and Agro-soil additives, Instrumental analysis of soil, Interpretation of soil evidence, Standard Operating Procedures for examination, Discussion on important case studies of soil evidence

Glass: Forensic examination of glass fractures, Physical and Microscopic examination of glass evidence, Standard Operating Procedures for examination, Discussion on important case studies of glass evidence

Paint: Types of paint and their composition, physical examination of paint, instrumental analysis of pigment, interpretation of paint evidence, Standard Operating Procedures for examination, Discussion on important case studies of paint evidence

Fibre: Classification and properties of textile, paper and fibres, Physical and Instrumental analysis of fibres evidence and dyes, Examination of damage to textiles, yarn, weaving & fabrics, Collection of fibre evidence, Interpretation of fibre evidence, Discussion on important case studies of fibre evidence

Cement: Cement and other constituents of Building materials and their properties, Identification of adulterated cement and adulterants, Sampling of evidence materials, Physical and chemical analysis of cement, cement mortar and cement concrete,

Methods of analysis of different constituents of Building materials, Steel bars and metal physics

Nano-science & Nano-technology: introduction to nanoparticles, nanotubes, utilization of nanotechnology in analysis of physical evidences, selectivity of nanoparticles with compatibility and feasibility, Application of nanotechnology in forensic evidence analysis

Arson: Faults and failure of evidence of Arson & Fire due to electrical & mechanical faults/failure, Power Physics: Voltage, current generation and transmission, Current and Power Transformers, 3-phase electricity and Earth faults

8) Collision Investigation and Reconstruction

Road evidence, road engineering and design, Grit, Bitumen, soling and paving of cemented roads, identification and interpretation of road obstructions, defects, marks and damage, tyre marks, skid marks

Vehicle examination: Automobile common component and failure analysis, damage assessment, tyres – types speed and load rating, inflation and failures, brakes –types and brake systems, door lock and speed recording devices, safety restraint system – theory and examination of seat-belt child-seat and air-bag, vehicular fires

Speed analysis: vehicle and road kinematics, coefficient of friction and drag factor, methods of determining drag factor, influence on braking distance

Speed determination: skid marks measurement, speed from vehicle yaw, speed calculation on different road surfaces, falls, flips and vault speeds, special speed problem

Motorcycle accident investigation: types of motor cycle, dynamics rake and turning, acceleration and breaks, mechanical consideration and slide to stop speed determination

Hit and run investigation- examination of suspect vehicle, collection of evidence & control samples, inter-comparison of analytical result of physical evidence

Reconstruction of accident using Computer Aided Designing.

Suggested Readings

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2. Albert S. Osborn; “Questioned Documents”, 2nd Ed., Universal Law Pub., Delhi, 1998.

3. Albert S Osborn; “The Problem of Proof”, 2nd Ed., Universal Law Pub. Delhi, 1998.

4. Allan Matchett; “CCTV for Security Professionals”, Elsevier, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.

5. Arora, S. P. &Bindra, S. P., “A Text Book of Building Construction”, DhanpatRai& Sons, Delhi, 2010

6. Atkins, P.W.; “Physical Chemistry”, 6th Edition, Oxford University, 1998.

7. Austerberg David; “The Technology of Video & Audio Streaming”, Focal Press, 2013.

8. B. A. J.Fisher, D. R. Fisher;“Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, 8th Edition”, CRC Press London, 2012.

9. Banwell C.L &Elani M.M.C; “Fundamental of Molecular Spectroscopy”, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co.,1995.

10. B. Caddy; “Forensic Examination of Glass and Paints Analysis and Interpretation”, ISBN 0784 05749, 2000

11. Bengold& Nelson Moryson; “Speech and Audio signal processing”, John Wiley & Sons, USA (1999)

12. Bevel, Tom.; “Bloodstain Pattern Analysis”, Boca Raton CRC Press, 2008

13. Bodziak, W., “Footwear Impression Evidence”, 2nd Ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida,2000

14. B.P.Saville; “Physical Testing of Textiles”, The Textile Institute CRC Press and wood head Pub., 2000

15. Brown Blain; “Cinematography: Theory and Practice Image making for Cinematographers and Directors”, Routledge, 2016.

16. B.R Sharma, “Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation & Trials”, Universal Publishing Co., New Delhi, 2003.

17. C.G.G.Aitkens and D. A. Stoney;“The Use of Statistics in Forensic Science”, Ellis Harwood Limited, England 2011.

18. C.G.G Aitkens and Franco Taroni; “Statistics and Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists”, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

19. Chatwal G.R & Anand S.K;“Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis”, Himalaya Publishing House, 2004.

20. Chatwal G.R;“Analytical Spectroscopy”, 2nd Edition, Himalaya Publishing House, 2002.

21. Christian, G.D.;“Analytical Chemistry”, 6th Edition., John Wiley, 2004

22. C. Kittel; “Solid-state physics”, Wiley 8th Ed, 2008.

23. Clark E.G.C;“Isolation and Identification of drugs, Vol.1 and Vol.2, Academic Press,1986.

24. C P Poole Jr and Franks J Owens; “Introduction to Nanotechnology”, Wiley-Inderscience; 1st Ed, 2003.

25. Craig Adam;“Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science”, Wiley Blackwell, 2010

26. David A. Crown; “The Forensic Examination of Paints and Pigments”, Toylor& Francis, NY, 2001.

27. David Lucy; “Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., London, 2005.

28. David R.Redsicker; “The Practical Methodology of Forensic Photography”, 2nd Ed. CRC Press LLC, 2001.

29. D.B. Fry; “The Physics of Speech, Cambridge University Press”, (2004)

30. Douglas Skoog, James Holler and Stanley Crouch; “Principles of Instrumental Analysis” 7th Edition, Cengage Learning, 2017.

31. Dwight Bolinger et. al.; “Aspects of Language”, Third Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, USA, (1981)

32. E.R.Mengel; “Forensic Physics in 2002 year book”, McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology.

33. E.R.Mengel; “Forensic Physics in 2002-year book”, McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology. 2002

34. Fifield, F.W. and Kealy, D.; “Principles and practice of Analytical Chemistry”, 5th Edition, Blackwell Science, 2000.

35. F. Toroni, S. Bozza, A. Biedermann, P. Garbolino; “Data analysis in Forensic Science”, Wiley, 2010.

36. Gloria J. Borden et. al.;“Speech Science Primer (Physiology, Acoustics and perception of Speech)”, 6th Ed, a Wolters Kluwer Company, USA, (2011)

37. G.R Chatwal & S.K Anand; “Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis”, Himalaya Publ. House, 2004.

38. G.R Chatwal; “Analytical Spectroscopy”, 2nd Edition, Himalaya Publishing House, 2002.

39. Harold Franck; “Forensic Engineering Fundamentals”, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2013.

40. Harris, D.C.;“Quantitative Chemical Analysis”, 5th Edition., Freeman,1999.

41. Harry Hollien; “Forensic Voice Identification”, Academic Press, London. (2001)

42. Harry Hollien; “The Acoustics of Crime- The New Science of Forensic Phonetics”, Plenum Press, New York and London (1990)

43. H. Henry; “Color photography – A Working Manual”, Little Brown Co. Boston,1995

44. H.L Blitzer& J. Jacob; “Forensic Digital Imaging and Photography”, Academic Press, 2002

45. H.L. Blitzer and J.Jacobia; “Forensic Digital Imaging and Photography”, Academic Press, 2002.

46. H. Lee;“Physical Evidence”, Elsevier, 2000

47. Hobart Willard; “Instrumental Methods of Analysis”, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1988

48. James Michael Curran, TachiaNatilie Hicks and John S. Buckleton; “Forensic Interpretation of Glass Evidence”, CRC Press,2000

49. James, S.H. And Nordby, J. J.; “Forensic Science; An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques”, 4th Edition, CRC Press USA, 2014

50. James, Stuart H.; “Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis”, Boca Raton Taylor & Francis 2005.

51. James W R; “Atomic Spectroscopy”, 2ndEdition, Marcel Dekkar, In, NY, 1966.

52. Jay A.Siegel, Pekka J Saukko and Geoffrey C. Kooupfer; “Encyclopedia of Forensic Science”, Academic Press,2000.

53. J. M. Brown & Campbell, E. A;“The Cambridge handbook of Forensic Psychology”, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2010

54. John Lewis; “Criminalistics for Crime Scene Investigators”, LawTech Publishing Group, 2014.

55. J.Walls; “Forensic Science-An Introduction to Scientific Crime Detection”, 2nd Ed.,Universal, 1st Indian Reprint, 2002.

56. K.C Thomson & R.J Renolds; “Atomic Absorption Fluorescence & Flame Emission Spectroscopy: A Practical Approach”,2nd Edition, Charles Griffin & Co., 1978.

57. Kenneth S. Obenski et. al.; “Motorcycle Accident Reconstruction and Litigation”, Lawyers & Judges Pub. Company. 2011.

58. Kerman Kruggle; “CCTV Surveillance: Practices and Technology”, Elsevier, 2007.

59. Khandpur R.S; “Handbook of Analytical Instruments”, Tata McGraw Hill Publ. Co., 2004.

60. Kittler Josef & Mark S. Nixon; “Audio and Video based Biometric Person Authentication”, Springer, 2003.

61. Laboratory procedure manual, Forensic Physics, Directorate of Forensic Science, MHA, Govt. of India2005.

62. Lee,Henry C et. al.; “Advances in Fingerprint technology”, New York CRC Press,2001

63. LNJN National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science; “A forensic Guide for Crime Investigators”, LNJN NICFS, 2015.

64. Lynn B. Fricke.; “Traffic Crash Reconstruction”, Northwestern University Center for Public Safety, 2010.

65. Michal Kawulok et al.; “Advances in Face Detection & Facial Image Analysis”, Springer, 2016.

66. Millerson Gerald; “Video Camera Techniques”, Focal Press, 2006.

67. M.M Houck &J.A Siegel; “Fundamentals of Forensic Science”, Academic Press, London, 2006.

68. Musburger, B. Robert & Michael R. Ogden; “Single Camera Video Production”, Focal Press, 2014.

69. Nakanishi Koji; “Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy”, Holden-Day, Inc. 1969)

70. Nick Marsh; “Forensic Photography: A Practitioner’s Guide”, 2014.

71. Oscar Tosi; “Voice Identification-Theory of Legal Applications”, University Park Press, Baltimore (1979)

72. O’Shaughnessy, Douglas; “Speech Communication”, Hyderabad Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd. (2001)

73. Patania V. B; “Spectroscopy”, Campus Books International, 2004.

74. Patricia Ashby; “Speech Sounds”, 2nd Ed. Routledge, London and New York (2005)

75. Philip Rose; “Forensic Speaker Identification,” Taylor and Francis, Forensic Science Series, London (2002)

76. Phillip Rose; “Forensic Speaker Identification”, Taylor & Francis, Forensic Science Series, London,2002

77. Qi Peter Li; “Speaker Identification”, Springer, 2012.

78. Randal Davis; “Evidence Collection and Presentation”, 2nd Edition, LawTech Publishing Group, 2016.

79. Raul Sutton, Keith Trueman and Chris Moran;“Crime scene management: Scene Specific Methods”,John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

80. R.E. Jacobson, S.F.Ray, G.G.Attridge;“The Manual of Photography- Photographic and Digital Imaging”, N.R. Oxford, 2000.

81. Richard Saferstein; “Forensic Science: An Introduction”, Prentice Hall Inc., USA, 2010

82. Robert C. Shaler; “Crime Scene Forensics: A Scientific Method Approach”, CRC Press London, 2012.

83. Robinson James; “Atomic Spectroscopy” 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker 1996.

84. R.S Khandpur; “Handbook of Analytical Instruments”, Tata Mac Graw Hill Publ. Co., 2004.

85. R. W. Rivers.; “Basic Physics: Notes for Traffic Crash Investigators and Reconstructionists: An Introduction for Some, a Review for Others”, Charles C. Thomas Pub Ltd, 2004.

86. R. W. Rivers; “Evidence in Traffic Crash Investigation and Reconstruction: Identification, Interpretation and Analysis of Evidence, and the Traffic Crash Investigation and Reconstruction”, Charles C. Thomas Pub Ltd. 2006.

87. S.H James and John Nordby;“Forensic Science- An Introduction to Scientific and investigative Techniques”, CRC Press, USA, 2003

88. S. H. James, J. J. Forensic science;“An introduction of Scientific and Investigative Technique”,CRC press 2003 and 2005

89. S. H. James, J. J. Nordby;“Forensic science: An introduction of Scientific and Investigative Technique”, CRC press 2003 and 2005.

90. Silverstein, R.M., and Webster, F.X.;“Spectroscopic Identification of Organic Compounds”, 6th Edition., Wiley, 1997.

91. Silverstein R.M Webster F.X; “Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds” 6th Edition, John Wiley 7 Sons, Inc.,1997.

92. Simon J. Godsill; “Digital Audio Restoration”, Springer, (1998)

93. Stan Z Li & Anil Kumar Jain; “Handbook of Face Recognition”, 2nd Edition, Springer, 2011.

94. Sunshine I;“Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry”, CRC Press, 1969.

95. Thomson K. C &Renolds R.J; “Atomic Absorption Fluorescence & Flame Emission Spectroscopy: A Practical Approach”,2nd Edition, Charles Griffin & Co.,1978.

96. Tony L. Becker; “Lamp Examination for Traffic Collision Investigators”, Institute of Police Technology and Management. 1995

97. Upton Kobre, Brill; “Photography”, Pearson Education, Inc, 2006.

98. V.B Patania; “Spectroscopy”, Campus Books International, 2004.

99. Welcher Frank; “Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis”, 6th Edition, Van Nostrand

100. Wheeler, Paul; “Digital Cinematography”, Focal Press, 2001.

101. Wilson R. Harrison; “Suspect Documents and their Scientific Examination”, Universal Law Pub. Delhi Indian Reprint, 2001.

102. Working manual of VSC-5000.

103. Working Procedure Manual, Physics BPR&D Publication 2000.

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