Syllabus of Forensic Chemical Sciences (FACT and FACT Plus Syllabus)

ELECTIVE IV: FORENSIC CHEMICAL SCIENCES

1) FORENSIC CHEMISTRY-I

a) Alcohols and alcoholic beverages, Analysis of alcohols, country made liquor, illicit liquor and medicinal preparations, Analysis of various denaturants of alcohol, detection and determination of ethanol, methanol, aldehyde, ester by colour test and instrumental technique, Relevant sections of Excise Act.

b) Metals and alloys their composition; Importance of analysis, purity of metals, trace elements, asht dhatu and their analysis

c) Petroleum products and their adulterations: Analysis of petrol, kerosene, diesel, lubricants by BIS methods and ASTM methods. Detection of adulterants of gasoline, diesel and engine oils. Analysis of residues in forensic exhibits, chromatography analysis of petrol, kerosene, diesel and other solvents for detection of adulteration.

d) Fire and Arson; Examination of crime scene, collection of exhibits, cause of fire and origin of fire, method of identification of inflammable material

e) Analysis of trap case:- Mechanism of colour reaction, factor affecting the colour, detection of phenolphthalein and alkali used, method of detection of degraded product on conversion of pink colour to colourless solution by TLC and UV visible spectrophotometer. Photo and videography and voice recording as supporting evidence.

f) Dyes: Role of dyes in crime investigation, comparison of dyes in fibres and different inks by TLC and UV-VIS Spectrophotometer.

g) Pesticides: Different types of pesticide, formulation, identification of pesticide, standard or sub-standard or substituted pesticides. Determination of purity by analysis by chemical test, thin layer chromatography, ultra violet – visible spectrophotometry and gas liquid chromatography. Determination of level of pesticide in water, cold drinks, milk, food materials.

2) FORENSIC CHEMISTRY-II

a) Explosive and Explosion: Introduction, classification of explosives- primary, secondary or High explosive, detonators pyro technique propellant IEDs and firing mechanism of IEDs

b) Role of Forensic scientist in Post blast investigation, Explosion effects, Collection of samples, Technical report frame work, Home made crude bombs, Evaluation and assessment of explosion site and reconstruction of sequence of events.

c) Analysis of explosive: Methods for extraction of explosive from post blast material/ debris, Qualitative analysis of explosives and explosion residue by colour test, TLC/HPTLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography and FTIR, GC-Mass, LC-Mass. X ray diffraction, equipment used for detection of explosives and explosive devices.

d) Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances: Sampling procedure and relevant notification, Laboratories authorised to conduct examination, an expert authorised to report NDPS cases.

e) Laws related to forensic interest, Common terminology and NDPS act Small quantity and commercial quantity and extent of punishment

f) Classification of Drugs commonly encountered: Narcotics, depresants, stimulants, hallucinogens designer drugs, club drugs and date rape drugs.

g) Analysis of Drugs: Narcotic drugs, Depressants, Barbiturates, methaquolone, Benzodiazipines, Stimulants, Hallucinogens, Designer Drugs, Club drugs, date rape drugs and precursors by Field test kits for drugs and precursors using colour test, thin layer chromatography and further confirmation by HPTLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Gas Chromatography, HPLC, GC-Mass Spectrometry and LC-Mass Spectrometry, Raman Spectroscopy and FTIR after extraction of drug from the seized sample.

Detection of common adulterants and determination of percentage purity in seized sample

h) Court testimony and case studies.

3) FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY – I

a) Forensic Toxicological examination and its significance. Branches of Toxicology: Introduction & Scope, Classification of poisons, based on their origin, mode of action, chemical nature, poisons and poisoning in India, Classification of poisoning: accidental, homicidal, suicidal and miscellaneous, sign and symptoms of poisons and antidotes. Factors affecting the intensity of poisoning. Importance of post-mortem examination in poisoning cases. Information to be collected by Investigating Officers and precautions to be adopted while searching crime scene and collecting evidence material in poisoning cases. Laws related to Poisons. Poison Act 1919, Drugs Act 1940 and 1955, Drug and Cosmetic Act 1940 and amendments

b) Classification of matrices- Biological, non-biological and Viscera. Different methods of extraction for volatile poisons of organic and inorganic nature: Solvent extraction, distillation /steam distillation, micro diffusion, dialysis, dry ashing, wet digestion, modified Stas-Otto method, ammonium sulphate method. Isolation and clean up procedure, separation of poisons and drugs using chromatographic techniques. Identification and estimation of poisons and drugs using chromatographic and spectrophotometric and other instrumental methods, significance of analytical studies with forensic examination.

c) Analysis of different Gases and volatile poisons, Analysis of toxic metals and anions

d) Analysis of pesticides: Organo chlorinated, organo phosphoro, carbamates, pyrethroids, aluminum phosphide and zinc phosphide

e) Methods of analysis of acidic/ neutral and alkaline drugs and poison commonly enconterd for forensic analysis

f) Systematic method of extraction of poisons both organic and inorganic from biological matrix and their detection, identification and quantitation by colour test, TLC, HPLC, HPTLC, GLC, UV –visible spectrophotometry FTIR, Mass spectrometry. Qualitative and quantity analysis of Inorganic poisons using instrument AAS, ICP, ion chromatography, ion selective electrode.

4) FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY – II

a) Modern method of extraction and Isolation: Solid phase extraction, solid phase micro-extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, preparative TLC and HPTLC

b) Extraction of poisons from blood, urine, stomach wash and vomit, cold drink, food material, toxicological analysis of Nail, Bones and bile in decomposed materials. Interpretation of toxicological finding and preparation of reports, limitation of method and trouble shooting in toxicological analysis, disposal of analysis samples

c) Hair analysis: Importance of hair for forensic examination of drugs and poisons, procedure for collection, storage and preservation. Methods of extraction of drugs and poisons from hair and their identification using instrumental techniques

d) Metabolism: various path of metabolism of common poisons, their distribution and excretion and method of extraction, isolation and identification of metabolites.

e) Food poisons: what is food poisoning, food poisoning due to common chemical and bacterial, sign and symptom of food poisoning, collection and preservation of evidence material, detection and identification by colour test and instrumental techniques

f) Plant poison: introduction, classification and their main active constituents, method of extraction of plant material from biological sample, identification by colour test and TLC and UV- Visible spectrophotometer and other instrumental techniques

g) Animal Poisons: Commonly encountered poisonous animals, snake and other insects, sign and symptoms, isolation of poison from biological material. Identity of poison by various chemical constituents, precipitant test and gel diffusion and immunological test

h) Common poison used in animal poisoning including wild life animals

i) Environmental pollutants- Inorganic and Inorganic and their identification and quantitation

j) Quaternary ammonium drugs and poisons Introduction and problems associated with their extraction from pharmaceuticals and biological materials. Method of extraction using ion pair and identification by TLC and UV visible spectrophotometry and other instrumental techniques

5) INSRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES – I

a) Basic concept of atomic and molecular spectra.

b) Basics of Instrumentation, sample preparation, purification of sample before analysis standardization and calibration of instrument

c) Ultra violet and visible spectrophotometry: Basic principle and instrumentation, Lambert and Beers Law. Role in identification and quantitation in forensic chemistry and toxicology and its limitations. Fluorescence and phosphorescence and its application

d) Infrared spectrophotometry: Basic principle, components, Sample handling, Dispersive and Fourier transform spectrophotometry, (FTIR). Qualitative analysis and interpretation of IR spectra, applications.

e) Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS): Instrumentation and techniques, interference in AAS, background correction methods, graphite furnace quantitative analysis. Applications in forensic chemistry and toxicology

f) Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES)-Inductively Coupled Plasma and ICP-MS instrument for detection and quantitation of inorganic metals, alloys and poisons in biological materials. Advantage of ICP over AAS and vice –versa

g) Chromatography Techniques; General principles of paper chromatography, column chromatography, TLC, gas chromatography, HPTLC and HPLC for identification and quantitation.

h) X ray spectroscopy- X ray absorption and fluorescence their application in forensic chemistry and toxicology

6) INSRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES – II

a) Mass spectrometry: Basic principle and component of Instrument sample chamber, ionization method, mass analyser, vaccum system, data handling. Tandem mass spectrometry. Interpretation of spectra. Application in Forensic chemistry and forensic toxicology

b) Raman spectroscopy Basic principle, sample handling Application in Forensic chemistry and toxicology. Advantage of Raman over IR/FTIR

c) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): basic principle and instrumentation, interpretation of spectra and application

d) Measurement of radioactivity, carbon dating, Neutron Activation analysis and its application in forensic science

e) Scanning Electron Microscope Coupled with EDXR, advantage of SEM over optical microscope. Application in Forensic Science

f) Hyphenated techniques- Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry, Liquid chromatography coupled with Mass spectrometry, GLC- FTIR.

Suggested Reading

1. Arena Poisoning: Chemistry, Symptoms and Treatment.

2. Barry Levine. Principles of Forensic Toxicology, 4th Edition, AACC Press 2013

3. Casarett & Doll Toxicology : The Basic Science of poisons

4. Connors, K.: A text book of Pharmaceuticals analysis, Interscince, New York, 1975.

5. Curry, A.S. : Poison Detection in Human Organs, 1976.

6. Curry: Analytical Methods in Human Toxicology, Part II, 1986.

7. Egon Stahl. Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Laboratory Handbook, 2013

8. F. Feigl, V. Anger. Spot test in inorganic analysis, 6th edition, 2012

9. Froede, R.C.: The Laboratory Management of the Medico-Legal, Specimen Analytical Chemical Laboratory Sciences.

10. G. Svehla, B. Sivasankar. Vogel’s Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, 2012

11. Gail Cooper, Adam Negrusz. Clarke’s Analytical Forensic Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Press, 2013

12. Gleason, M.N. et. al.: Clinical Toxicology of Commercial products, Williams and Williams, Baltimore USA, 1969.

13. Holfmann, F.G.: Handbook of Drug and Alchoho Abuse.

14. Maehly and Stromberg : Chemical Criminalistics, 1980.

15. Modi’s: Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology, M. M. Trirathi Press Ltd. Allahabd, 1988.

16. Nicholas Lappas, Courtney Lappas . Forensic Toxicology: Principles and Concepts, Academic Press 2016

17. O. Hara & Osterburg : Introduction to Criminalistics, 1949.

18. Ret Newman, Micheal Gilbert, Kevin Lothridge; GC-MS Guide to Ignitable Liquids, CRC Press, LLC, 1999.

19. S.N. Tiwari: Analytical Toxicology, Govt. of India Publications, New Delhi, 1987.

20. Saferstein, R: Criminalistics, 2002.

21. Saferstein, R: Forensic Science Hand Book, Vol I, II and III, Pretince Hall, NI, 1982.

22. Sharma, B.R.: Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation & Trials, 2003.

23. Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 2017

Narcotics:

24. Anthony C. Moffat, M. David Osselton, Brian Widdop, Jo Watts. Clarke’s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons: In Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Postmortem Material, Pharmaceutical Press, 2011

25. Indian Pharmacopoeia 2014 with DVD – Seventh edition

26. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985

Explosives:

27. Alexander Beveridge. Forensic Investigation of Explosives, CRC Press, 2nd edition, 2011

28. Explosive Substances Act, 1908

29. J. Akhavan. The Chemistry of explosives, RSC Publishing, 2015

30. J. Yinon, S. Zitrin. Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives, Wiley Publishers 1996

Specialization In Forensic Chemistry And Toxicology

31. Christian Donell R, Khan Javed, Kennedy Thomas (2011), Basic Principles of Forensic Chemistry; 1st Edition, Humana Press

32. Clarke E.G.C. and Moffat A.C. (Edition 2 revised) (1986), Clark’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs, Publisher Pharmaceutical Press.

33. Crown (1968), The Forensic Examination of Paint and Pigments, Charles C Thomas Pub. Ltd.

34. Cunliffe F. and Piazza P.B. (1980), Criminalistics and Scientific Investigation, Prentice Hall.

35. Houck Max M; (2015) Forensic Chemistry; 1st Edition; Elsevier science publication; Amsterdam

36. Iqbal Aftab Syed, Liviu Mitu (2011), Textbook of Forensic Chemistry; Discovery Publishing House Pvt. Ltd

37. Johll Mathew E (2009), Investigating Chemistry: A forensic science perspective; 2nd Edition; W.H.Freeman and Company; New York

38. Khan (2012), Basic Principles of Forensic Chemistry; 1st Edition; Springer Humana; New York

39. Kobilinsky Lawrence, (2012), Forensic Chemistry Handbook; 1st Edition; John wiley & sons publishing house; Canada

40. Lundquis F. and Curry, A. S. (Vol.III) (1962), Methods of Forensic Science, Publisher Interscience.

41. Maehly A. and Stromberg L. (1981), Chemical Criminalistics, Springer Berlin.

42. Moonesens A.A; Mosses and Inbaw (1973), Scientific Evidence in Criminal Cases

43. Newton David E (2008), Forensic Chemistry (Series – The new Chemistry); 1st Edition; Facts on file publication; USA

44. O’ Hara C.E and Osterburg J.W. (1949), Introduction to Criminalistics, The MacMillan Co.

45. Saferstein R. (Edition 8th) (1978), Forensic Science Handbook : Criminalistics, Prentice Hall Inc. USA.

46. Sharma B.R. (2003), Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation & Trials, Universal Law Publishing Company.

47. Suzanne Bell; Forensic chemistry; 2nd Edition; Pearson Higher Education

48. Walb & Brounds, Drunks, Drugs & Driving.

49. White , Dynamics of Accident Investigation in criminal cases.

50. Winger G., Woods J.H., Hoffman F.G. (4th Edition) (2004), A Handbook on Drug and Alcoholic Abuse, Oxford University Press

Advanced Forensic Toxicology

51. Arena J.M. (3rd Edition) (1974), Poisoning: Toxicology, Symptoms treatments, Thomas: University of California.

52. Bamford F. (3rd Edition) (1955), Poisons : Their Isolation and Identification, McGraw-Hill.

53. Burcham Philip C (2013) ; An introduction to toxicology; 1st edition; Springer Publication; New York;

54. Christian Donell R (2004); Forensic Investigation Of Clandestine Investigation; 1st Edition; CRC Press; New York

55. Clarke E.G.C. and Moffat A.C. (Edition 2 revised) (1986), Clark’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs, Publisher Pharmaceutical Press.

56. Connors, K.A. (1975), A Text book of Pharmaceuticals analysis, Wiley Interscience, New York.

57. Curry A.S. (1972), Advances in Forensic and Clinical Toxicology, CRC Press.

58. Curry A.S. (Part II) (1986), Analytical Methods in Human Toxicology, Publisher Wiley Verlag Chemie.

59. Curry A.S. (Second Edition) (1969), Poison Detection in Human Organs, Springfield Thomas.

60. Curry A.S. (Second Edition) (1969), Poison Detection in Human Organs, Springfield Thomas.

61. Dubois K.P. and Gelling E.M.K. (1959), Textbook of Toxicology, Oxford University Press.

62. Flanagan Robert J., Taylor A, Watson Ian D, Whelpton Robin (2008) ; Fundamental of analytic toxicology; 1st Edition; Wiley Blackwell; London

63. Hayes A Wallace, Kruger L. Claire; Haye’s (2014): principles and methods of toxicology; 6th Edition; CRC Press; New York.

64. Hodgson Ernst (2011); A textbook of modern toxicology; 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publication; Canada

65. Holfmann, F.G. (1975), A Handbook of Drug and Alchohol Abuse, New York: Oxford University Press.

66. Klaassen C. (Edition 8th) (2013), Casarett & Doll Toxicology: The Basic Science of poisons, McGraw-Hill Medical.

67. Klaassen Curtis D; Casarett and Doull’s (2008) Toxicology: The basic sciences of poisons; 7th Edition; Mc Graw Hill Medical Publishing Division; New York

68. Leikin Jerrold B, Paloucek Frank P (2008) ; Poisoning and toxicology handbook; 4th edition; Informa Healthcare ; New York

69. Moffat Anthony C, Osselton M David, Widdop Brian (2011); Clarke’s analysis of drug and poisons in pharmaceuticals, body fluids and post-mortem material; 4th Edition; Pharmaceutical press; Chicago

70. Mule, S.J (1974), Immunoassays for Drugs subjects to ab, CRC Press.

71. Neal Michael J (2012) ; Medical Pharmacology at a glance; 7th Edition; Wiley – Blackwell publication; London

72. Pillay V.V (2013); Modern medical toxicology; 4th Edition; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publications; New Delhi

73. Stoleman A. (Vol.I,IIand III) (1965), Progress in Chemical Toxicology, Academic Press.

74. Sunshine (1975), Methods for Analytical Toxicology, CRC Press, USA.

75. Sunshine (Vol. I) (1950), Guidelines for Analytical Toxicology Programme, CRC Press.

76. Sunshine (Vol.I) (1969), Handbook of Analytical Toxicology, CRC Press.

77. Turner W.W. (First Edition) (1965), Drugs & Poisons, Publisher Aqueduct Books.

78. Vij Krishnan (2011); Textbook of forensic medicine and toxicology: Principles and practices; 5th Edition; Elsevier publication; India.

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Carbolic acid Poisoning
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Cocaine poisoning
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Lead Salts Poisoning
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DDT Poisoning
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Caustic Alkali Poisoning
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Chloral Hydrates Poisoning
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Barium carbonate Poisoning
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Sodium Nitrite Poisoning
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Zinc Phosphide Poisoning
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Atropine Poisoning
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Kuchila Poisoning
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Ergot Poisoning
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Copper Sulphate Poisoning
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Mushrooms Poisoning
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Oxalic Acid
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