Molecular Toxicology of Some Poisons

Molecular toxicology is the study of the molecular mechanisms that generate toxicity in chemicals as well as the impact of numerous chemical components on living beings. It’s focuses at both natural and artificial substances, as well as the impact of genetic, physiologic, and environmental variables on organisms.

The molecular toxicology of some poisons is given below:

AconiteIt’s a extract of Aconitum plants (or monkshood). It interferes with sodium ions in the depolarization–repolarization of excitable tissue in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

Arsenic – Arsenic is a natural chemical element which binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes, affecting energy synthesis and storage metabolic processes in mitochondria. Phosphate is substituted in ATP molecules, causing cellular metabolism to be disrupted.

Acetaminophen – Acetaminophen is a kind of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (NSAID). Acetaminophen is used to treat fever, mild aches and pains such as headaches, backaches, arthritic pain, toothaches, muscle aches, and premenstrual and menstrual cramps.

Botulinum Toxin (Toxin from Clostridium botulinum) -The bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species create botulinum toxin, which is a neurotoxic protein. It causes flaccid paralysis by preventing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from being released from axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction. It binds to nerve terminals, preventing the release of acetylcholine, which is essential for muscle contraction.

Carbon Monoxide – The incomplete combustion of fuels produces carbon monoxide (CO). It is an odourless and colourless gas. When individuals are exposed to CO gas, the CO molecules in their bodies displace oxygen, causing poisoning. It binds to haemoglobin molecules in the blood. This makes it difficult for oxygen molecules to connect to haemoglobin and go to tissues.

Cocaine – Cocaine is a white powder made from the coca plant’s dried leaves, a South American native. Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant that increases alertness, focus, and energy levels. It inhibits neurotransmitter reuptake into nerve terminals, resulting in neurotransmitter accumulation and enhanced activation at nerve synapses. It also causes ischemia and a probable myocardial infarction by constricting blood vessels.

Coniine – Coniine is a toxic chemical substance, an alkaloid found in poison hemlock and isolable from it (Conium maculatum). It paralyses respiratory muscles by blocking nerve receptors in skeletal muscles.

Cyanide – Cyanide is a potentially lethal chemical that may exist in a variety of forms. Cyanide can exist in the form of a colourless gas, such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or cyanogen chloride (CNCl), or as a crystal, such as sodium cyanide (NaCN) or potassium cyanide (KCN). Cyanide hinders the body’s cells from utilising oxygen, and as a result, the cells die. Because the heart and brain consume a lot of oxygen, cyanide is more dangerous to them.

Ethylene glycol – Ethylene glycol is a chemical that is used as a coolant in automobiles. Ethylene glycol is an important industrial component that may be found in a variety of everyday items. Antifreeze, hydraulic brake fluids, certain stamp pad inks, ballpoint pens, solvents, paints, plastics, films, and cosmetics are a few examples. During metabolism, glycolic and oxalic acids are generated, acidifying body fluids and creating calcium oxalate crystals that injure kidneys and other organs.

Ethanol – Ethanol is a biofuel derived from corn and other plant components. Ethanol intoxication inhibits the function of the respiratory control centres in the CNS.

Fentanyl – Fentanyl is a kind of synthetic opioid. Fentanyl’s principal effects are pleasure and pain alleviation. as a result of Fenanyl toxicity The respiratory control centres’ function in the CNS is hindered.

Nicotine – Tobacco contains nicotine, a naturally occurring alkaloid in the nightshade family of plants that is frequently used recreationally as a stimulant and anxiolytic. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), causing seizures and unconsciousness, as well as skeletal muscular spasms resulting in prolonged breathing muscle contraction.

Organophosphates – Organophosphates are a category of man-made compounds that are lethal to insects and animals. They have use in agriculture, the home, gardening, and veterinary medicine. It inhibits the enzyme that metabolises acetylcholine. Acetylcholine accumulates in neuronal synapses as a result, and cholinergic stimulation becomes more powerful.

Ricin – Ricin is a toxin that is naturally contained in castor beans. Ricin, which is produced when castor beans are swallowed and consumed, can cause harm. Ricin may be produced from waste material left over from the processing of castor beans. It might be a powder, a mist, or a pellet, or it can be dissolved in water or a mild acid. It inhibits the production of structural proteins and new enzymes, both of which are necessary for cellular function.

Strychnine – Strychnine is a kind of alkaloid present in the Strychnos nux-vomica plant. It’s a pesticide that’s very poisonous, colourless, bitter, and crystalline. Strychnine is a competitive antagonist of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine, causing motor neurons in the spinal cord to become uninhibited. It inhibits inhibitory neuronal transmission, letting skeletal muscle activation to persist, eventually leading to generalised seizures and respiratory difficulties.

Thallium – It’s a grey post-transition metal. When isolated, thallium looks like tin, but when exposed to air, it discolours.
Thallium is a cumulative toxin that can harm your health and induce degenerative changes in a number of organs. In the neurological system, the consequences are the most severe. It leads to potassium replacements. It prevents potassium-dependent nerve impulses and metabolic functions from being transmitted.

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