Know About The Investigative Agencies Of India
Any country that values its safety and defense establishes a significant focus on having top-notch intelligence expertise. There are numerous intel organizations in our country, specializing in different fields. To investigate thoroughly, acquire data, prevent violence and offer protection. These organizations have developed significantly over time and have saved us from numerous undesirable situations that the layman has no idea about. Here we discuss the important Indian spy agencies that work 24/7 to protect our safety.
1. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
The primary investigative police organisation in India is the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). It was founded in 1941 as the Special Police Organization and given domestic security responsibilities. It is a powerful elite force that ensures the strength of the country’s economy and plays a crucial role in civic life. The main police organisation in India that organises investigations on behalf of Interpol Member nations is called the Ministry of Personnel, Pension and Public Grievance procedures. Additionally, it is involved in gathering criminal intels related to three of its primary operational domains: special crimes, economic crimes, and anti-corruption. It might look at:
- Cases that primarily target Central Government workers or involve Central Government-related projects.
- Situations where the financial interests of the Central Government are taken into consideration.
- Incidents of deceit, fraud, cheating, misallocation involving businesses involving substantial sums of money, and similar scenarios when perpetrated by organized crime syndicates or skilled criminals with consequences in some States.
- Instances involving a few official entities and having both national and international repercussions.
- Cases involving violations of Central Laws, the implementation of which is of particular significance to the Government of India.
The mission of MAC, a multi-agency counterterrorism center established during the Kargil War, is to regularly communicate intelligence concerning terrorism. For the purpose of simplifying intelligence efforts, it was constituted in Delhi and supplementary Multi-Agency Centers (SMACs) in other states with officials from several intelligence communities.
2. Intelligence Bureau (IB)
The Indian Bureau of Investigation is a well-known and reputable intelligence organisation. The Ministry of Home Affairs has direct authority over the intelligence bureau. The head of the intelligence bureau is the Director IB (DIB), a representative on the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC). It is regarded as the underlying organisation in charge of keeping an eye on all facets of administration. It is in charge of terrorism counterintelligence. The intelligence bureau maintains a close watch on changes involving parliamentary commitments and updates the cabinet headquarters. The majority of this activity is done by the intelligence bureau’s Special Enquiry and Surveillance Unit (SES).
3. Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)
Only individuals from the Intelligence Bureau, Indian Police Services, Indian military, or tax departments were initially appointed to the Research and Analysis Wing (RA&W). Prior to 1968, both India’s internal and external intelligence was handled by the Intelligence Bureau. India then created the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), primarily to monitor China’s and Pakistan’s actions and moves. The Secretary (Research) position in the Cabinet Secretariat is reserved for the RA&W Chief. It only has to respond to the Joint Intelligence Committee and the Prime Minister. It is not answerable to the Indian Parliament on any matters, and the same clause exempts it from the Right to Information (RTI) Act’s purview. It keeps tabs on adjacent military and diplomatic developments since they directly affect India’s territorial integrity and the formation of its foreign affairs. As the Secretary of the Cabinet Secretariat, the head of R&AW is directly responsible to the Prime Minister and administratively answers to the Cabinet Secretary, who in turn answers to the Prime Minister.
4. National Investigative Agencies (NIA)
In 2008, a specific Act of the Indian Parliament created the National Investigative Agency. The authorities for bringing up specific cases under specific Acts for a probe and prosecution were added after the Mumbai Terrorist Event. Although it may be argued that the Agency’s duties conflict with those owed entirely to the states, this does not prove that the Agency is constitutionally invalid. It was never the responsibility of the Institution to handle violations of all legislation. This organisation exclusively deals with the eight statutes listed below:
- The Atomic Energy Act, 1962
- The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967
- The Anti-Hijacking Act, 1982
- The Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation Act, 1982
- The SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act, 1993
- The Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act, 2002
- The Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005
5. National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID)
The National Intelligence Grid, also known as NATGRID, was suggested in the wake of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist tragedy. It is the consolidated intelligence architecture that links the security agency databases of the Indian government to acquire all-encompassing intelligence trends that intelligence agencies can examine. Central organizations like RAW, the Intelligence Bureau, the CBI, etc. can access these data. The Ministry of Home Affairs maintains the NATGRID office. It was criticised for allegedly violating confidentiality of people and leaking sensitive personal information.
6. Crime Investigation Department (CID)
Crime Investigation Department (CID) investigates complaints and obtains intelligence. The British Government established it in 1902, according to the recommendations of the Police Commission. The Additional Director General of Police (ADGP) and the Inspector General of Police work together to lead the CID’s Crime Branch, which is a special division of the CID (IGP). Serious crimes like rioting and looting, falsification, counterfeit currency, and cases made reference by the state government or the High Court are all investigated by this agency. The CID also features a Finger Print Bureau, an Anti-Narcotics Cell, an Anti-Human Trafficking & Missing Persons Wing, and an Anti-Terrorism Wing. The investigative or intelligence branch of the state police is customarily the Criminal Investigation Department. Additionally, it aids the police in handling particular cases.
7. National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB)
The National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) will equip the Indian Police with data technology to assist them effectively adhere to the law and improve the provision of public services. It is in charge of gathering and analysing crime statistics as specified by the Indian Penal Code (IPC).
8. Directorate of Enforcement (ED)
Implementation of economic laws and the investigation of financial crime in India are the responsibilities of the Directorate of Enforcement (ED), a law enforcement and economic intelligence organisation of India. It is a component of the Ministry of Finance’s Department of Revenue in India. It is made up of distinguished members of its own cadre as well as individuals from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and Indian Revenue Service. The Department of Economic Affairs established the “Enforcement Unit” in 1956 to tackle breaches of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947’s Exchange Control Laws. The entity was titled the “Enforcement Directorate” in 1957. The Foreign Exchange Management Act of 1999 (FEMA), the Prevention of Money Laundering Act of 2002 (PMLA), and the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act of 2018 are the basic Regulations of the Indian Government that the Enforcement Directorate is concerned with enforcing. The overall purpose of the ED (Enforcement Directorate) is to prevent money laundering in India.
9. Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)
Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an Indian spy organisation. It is the premier intel, surveillance, and operations organisation for counter-smuggling in our country. As part of the Customs Overseas Intelligence Network, officials from the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) are assigned to the Directorate’s several Zonal Components and foreign Indian embassies. A Director General with the status of Special Secretary to the Government of India serves as its administrator. The Agency seeks to protect India’s nationwide and financial security by combating the open trafficking of illegal goods such weapons, gold, drugs, counterfeit rupees, antiques, wildlife, and ecological goods. Additionally, it strives to prevent the dissemination of illicit currency, trade-based financial and commercial frauds.
10. Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)
The Narcotics Control Bureau is India’s top law enforcement, intelligence, and coordinating body for the fight against drug trafficking and improper handling of illicit and legal narcotics. The Indian Constitution’s Article 47 directs the State to work toward the elimination of the use of euphoric drugs that are damaging to health outside of medical needs. The Indian Police Service or the Indian Revenue Service professional who serves as the Director-General of NCB. The main office is in Delhi.
11. Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)
The Central Board of Excise and Customs’ Department of Revenue, which is part of the Ministry of Finance, is an intelligence institution in India. It upholds the ban on trafficking of goods including illegal drugs, gold, jewels, electronic devices, foreign cash, fake Indian currency, etc.
The Bureau of Police Research and Investigation (BPR&D) was established in 1970 to determine the needs and problems faced by the police in the country, to engage in appropriate research operations and considerations, and to suggest strategic options in response to emerging challenges. Additionally, it was mandated to keep up with the most contemporary scientific and technological advances. Additionally, it has provided training sessions for prison staff on a variety of topics, including developmental psychology and the management of human rights in prisons.
13. Joint Cipher Bureau
An organisation of the Indian armed forces known as the Joint Cipher Bureau is in charge of coordinating comparable tasks and operations of military intelligence organisations as well as surveillance data and cryptanalysis. The IB, R&AW, and the Joint Cipher Bureau collaborate closely. It is in charge of cryptanalysis and encryption of private information. For cryptology and SIGINT, the inter-services Joint Cipher Bureau is primarily in charge, coordinating and guiding the other military service organisations with related missions. The majority of the modern technology used to provide tactical intelligence, including specialist direction-finding and monitoring tools, is of Russian provenance. Organizations in the defence industry active in the incorporation of cryptographic techniques, protocols, and products have invented and manufactured specialised cryptographic products.
14. Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA)
The Indian Armed Forces’ intelligence is established and supervised by the Defence Intelligence Agency (D.I.A. ), an intel organisation. It was established in March 2002, and the Ministry of Defence is responsible for managing it. Senior Indian military leaders have long advocated for the establishment of an intelligence organization to oversee the intelligence divisions of the three armed personnel. The Group of Ministers looked into security breaches during the Kargil War and suggested a thorough overhaul of Indian intelligence organisations. The US military offered Indian military commanders guidance on the establishment of the DIA as part of enhancing bilateral collaboration on intelligence collecting and counterterrorism.
15. Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO)
A constitutional corporate fraud exploration organisation in India is called the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO). It is governed by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs of the Indian Government, and personnel from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Corporate Law Service, Indian Revenue Service, and other Central Services are principally in charge of overseeing it. Professionals from diverse fields of the financial and micro-financial services sector work for the agency. Massive corporate scams must be the subject of multidisciplinary inquiries by the SFIO. Experts from the global financial system, capital market, accounting, forensic audit, taxes, law, telecommunications, information technology, corporate laws, immigration, and research make up this specialized institution. These specialists come from a variety of organisations, including banks, the Securities and Exchange Board of India, the Comptroller and Auditor General, and relevant government agencies and organisations. The Vajpayee government chose to establish SFIO in 2003 in response to the background of stock market scandals as well as the collapse of non-banking enterprises that caused major financial losses to the general public.
16. National Counter-Terrorism Center (NCTC)
The National Counter-Terrorism Center was established with authorisation from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) in 2012. It is based on the anti-terrorism unit constituted in the US National Counterterrorism Center. A Director will be responsible for leading the National Counter-Terrorism Center and will answer to the Director of the Intelligence Bureau and the Home Secretary. The Unlawful Activities Prevention Act of 1967 will be the root of its legitimacy. Local offices will be created across states to collect up-to-date data. It can also search through archives, reports, and digital material belonging to any intelligence entity. They are permitted to carry out searchs and raids without the state’s sanction. Chief Ministers of various states have criticised the plan because they believe it will worsen India’s federalism and center-state relations. Because the states opposed to NCTC as being “anti-federal” and an incursion onto the state’s “law and order” realm, the NCTC headquarters has not yet been developed in India.