How Does The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Work?

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is law enforcement and national security entity that collects and uses intellect in all of its operations. The FBI has a solemn responsibility to protect the country against national safety risks. The protection of the American people and upholding the Constitution are the responsibilities of the FBI. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s first director was John Edgar Hoover.

How Does The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Work?
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Background of FBI

The National Bureau of Criminal Identification was launched in 1896 and gave organisations all around the nation the data they required to identify notorious offenders. Following the murder of President William McKinley in 1901, there was a feeling that radicals were a danger to the United States. In 1908, Attorney General Charles Bonaparte was granted a directive by President Roosevelt to create up an independent detective service, the “Bureau of Investigation,” which would thereafter establish its own team of ‘special agents’. The United States Bureau of Investigation became the new title for the agency in 1932. Then it officially changed its name to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1933, and became an autonomous service inside the Department of Justice.

Also Read: Brief History of FBI

Structure of the FBI

The U.S. Department of Justice, controlled by the U.S. Attorney General, encompasses the FBI. The FBI was founded by the Attorney General with the purpose of creating investigators to support the enforcement of federal laws of Sections 533 and 534, Title 28. Code. The J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington, D.C. serves as the prime headquarter of the FBI. There are 56 field offices overall, with locations in the majority of large cities. Each field office is led by a Special Agent officer.

Divisions of the FBI

The FBI has created numerous distinct units to acquire knowledge and deal with events as a result of its operation’s ongoing evolution and broad scope. These are :

  • FBI Intelligence Branch
  • FBI National Security Branch
  • FBI Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch
  • FBI Science and Technology Branch
  • FBI Information and Technology Branch
  • FBI Human Resources Branch

Each division has a specific field of expertise, and some sections have more than one. The following are examples of the duties that the various subdivisions are responsible for:

FBI Headquarters Washington D.C. :

  1. National Security Branch (NSB)
  • Counterintelligence Division (CD)
  • Counterterrorism Division (CTD)
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (WMDD)
  • High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG)
  • Terrorist Screening Center (TSC)

2. Intelligence Branch (IB)

  • Directorate of Intelligence (DI)
  • Office of Partner Engagement (OPE)
  • Office of Private Sector

3. FBI Criminal, Cyber, Response, and Services Branch (CCRSB)

  • Criminal Investigation Division (CID) or Profiling Division (CPD)
  • Cyber Division (CyD)
  • Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG)
  • International Operation Division (IOD)
  • Victim Services Division

4. Science and Technology Branch (STB)

  • Operational Technology Division (OTD)
  • Laboratory Division (LD)
  • Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIA) Division

Other Headquarter Offices :

5. Information and Technology Branch (ITB)

  • IT Enterprise Services Division (ITESD)
  • IT Applications and Data Division (ITADD)
  • IT Infrastructure Division (ITID)
  • IT Management Division
  • IT Engineering Division
  • IT Services Division

6. Human Resources Branch (HRB)

  • Training Division (TD)
  • Human Resources Division (HRD)
  • Security Division (SecD)

7. Administrative and financial management support

  • Facilities and Logistics Services Division (FLSD)
  • Finance Division (FD)
  • Records Management Division (RMD)
  • Resource Planning Office (RPO)
  • Inspection Division (InSD)

Overall, the divisions come under 4 broader categories. They are :

1.Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS):

The FBI’s biggest department is the Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS). This is reasonable considering that a portion of the FBI’s most notable works involves the gathering, examination, and correlation of data from criminal investigations. The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System is one of the programme and comprises the CJIS. The IAFIS is the world’s biggest dataset of its type and comprises the fingerprints of over 47 million people. The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) is also a component of the CJIS. No matter whether entity conducted the initial investigation, it has comprehensive data on offenses perpetrated throughout the country. By assessing changes and commonalities between offences, police departments at the federal, state, and municipal level can use the IAFIS and the data in the NCIC to track down offenders who may roam around.

2. Laboratory Division:

The Laboratory Division’s facilities are also available to law enforcement organizations. The FBI Crime Lab, one of the biggest forensic labs in the world, has performed more than a million forensic evaluations and developed cutting-edge forensic analytical methods. All forms of physical evidence, including DNA, body fluids, hair, fibres, patent, and covert fingerprints, documentations, handwriting audio analysis, photography, counterterrorism, ballistics, IT, and cybersecurity are all investigated forensically by the laboratories. The Forensic Science Research and Training Center (FSRTC) at the FBI provided opportunities to law enforcement organisations as well. Expert testimony from laboratory experts is offered in legal proceedings involving forensic evidence.

3. Behavioral Analysis Unit:

The Behavioral Analysis division at the FBI has been a leader in the field of criminal profiling analysis. The analysis is the method of examining criminal cases from both a psychological and investigative standpoint. A profile that depicts several facets of the accused’s psyche is created by experienced criminologists after they examine the facts and variables affecting a crime or sequence of incidents. Detectives can concentrate their inquiries and prioritise discoveries by taking into account factors like gender, age, education level, occupations, and many more other intels. Geographical profiling is also beneficial; with this method, analyzers input data about crime scenes into a system, which generates a “region of particular interest” for detectives to emphasis on.

4. Hostage Rescue Team:

The Hostage Rescue Team, a division of the Critical Incident Response Group’s Logistical Support Department of FBI, is one of the best searches – and – rescue teams around the globe. The HRT began as a rapid rescue squad with SWAT-style equipment. Their responsibility was to employ the US Forces to free the hostages.

The Major Priorities of FBI

  • Prevent fatal terrorist attacks on the United States.
  • Defend the US against the internet or cyber-related attacks, espionage, and foreign intelligence activities.
  • Fight corruption issues.
  • Safeguard civil rights.
  • Fight intercontinental poachers.
  • Battle drastic violent crimes.
  • Prevent white-collar corruption.
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