Fundamental Rights

Fundamental rights are derived from the Constitution of the United States of America, which is enshrined in Part III of the Constitution, granting equal rights to all Indians and prohibit the State from violating the liberty of a person while at the same time imposing on it a duty to protect the rights of people from society’s invasion. 

Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the Constitution:

  1. The right to equality,
  2. Right to freedom,
  3. Right against exploitation,
  4. Right to freedom of religion,
  5. Cultural and educational rights,
  6. Right to property and,
  7. Right to constitutional remedies.

However, the right to property was abolished from Part III of the Constitution by the 44th Amendment in 1978.

List of Fundamental Rights

There are six fundamental rights of Indian Constitution along with the constitutional articles related to them are mentioned below:

  1. Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
  2. Right to Freedom (Article 19-22)
  3. Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24)
  4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28)
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29-30)
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)

Right to Equality

Article Brief description 
Article 14The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India, on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
Article 15The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
Article 16There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
Article 17Abolition of untouchability
Article 18Abolition of all titles except military and academic

Right to Freedom

Article Brief description 
Article 19Protection of 6 rights concerning the freedom of: 
1. Speech and expression,
2. Assembly,
3. Association,
4. Movement,
5. Residence,
6. Profession
Article 20Protection with respect to conviction for offences
Article 21Right to life and personal liberty
Article 21ARight to elementary education
Article 22Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation

Article 23Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
Article 24Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

Article 25Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion
Article 26Freedom to manage religious affairs
Article 27Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion
Article 28Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights

Article 29 Protection of Interests of Minorities
Article 30 Right of Minorities to Establish and Administer Educational Institutions

Right to Constitutional Remedies – Article 32 (2)

The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part.