Category Archives: Legal Knowledge

section 176 in the code of criminal procedure 1973

CrPCChapter XII

176. Inquiry by Magistrate into cause of death. –

(1)[* * *] When the case is of the nature referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) of sub-section (3) of section 174], the nearest Magistrate empowered to hold inquests shall, and in any other case mentioned in sub-section (1) of section 174, any Magistrate so empowered may hold an inquiry into the cause of death either instead of, or in addition to, the investigation held by the police officer; and if he does so, he shall have all the powers in conducting it which he would have in holding an inquiry into an offence.

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Section 32 in The Indian Evidence Act, 1872

IEAChapter II

Section 32. Cases in which statement of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found, etc ., is relevant

Statements, written or verbal, of relevant facts made by a person who is dead, or who cannot be found, or who has become incapable of giving evidence, or whose attendance cannot be procured without an amount of delay or expense which, under the circumstances of the case, appears to the Court unreasonable, are themselves relevant facts in the following cases:—

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Hierarchy of Indian Judicial System

The Indian judicial system has been divided into three types of courts

  1. The Supreme Court,
  2. The High Courts, and,
  3. The subordinate courts.

Articles related to Indian Judiciary in Indian Constitution:

Articles related to Supreme Court: Articles from 124 to 147 in Part V of the constitution deal with the organization, independence, jurisdiction, powers procedures of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court is at the top-level court of Indian Judiciary System.

Articles related to High Court: Article 214,-219, 222, 224A, 225-231 (Part VI), 241 (Part VIII), 376 (Part XXI) deals with power, constitution, jurisdiction, appointment of judges, etc. of High Court. Each state has a High Court which is the highest court of that state.

Articles related to Subordinate Court: Article 233-234 in Part VI deals with the appointment of District Court Judges. The courts that most people interact with are called subordinate or district courts or Tehsil level court.

Hierarchy of Courts

Directive Principles of State Policy

Part-IV of Indian Constitution deals with Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP). They are borrowed from the Irish Constitution. They are principles aimed at providing social and economic justice and paving the way towards a welfare state.

Here we are going to look at the list of Articles of DPSP:

Directive Principles of State Policy

Article 36Definition
Article 37Application of the principles contained in this Part.
Article 38State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
Article 39Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
Article 39AEqual justice and free legal aid.
Article 40Organisation of village panchayats.
Article 41Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases
Article 42Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
Article 43Secure a  Living wage, etc., for workers.
Article 43AParticipation of workers in management of industries.
Article 44Uniform civil code for the citizens.
Article 45Provision for free and compulsory education for children
Article 46Promote the educational and economic interests of SCs, STs, and other weaker sections of the society and to protect them from social injustice and exploitation
Article 47Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of  living of people and to improve public health
Article 48Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry
Article 48AProtection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life of the country.
Article 49Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance
Article 50Separation of judiciary from executive.
Article 51Promotion of international peace and security