Category Archives: Forensic Evidences

Chelioscopy{LIP PRINT}

By @forensicfield


Lip prints, like fingerprints are unique to an individual and can be easily recorded. Identification plays a major role in any crime investigation.

The pattern of wrinkles on the lips has individual characteristics like fingerprints.

Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces.

Use Of Lip Prints In Crime Detection

Lip prints have the same value as Dactyloscopic traces.

Just like finger print and teeth, lip print can be used as tool for identification.

Lip prints are unique and do not change during life of a person.

They can be most frequently seen during murders, rapes and burglaries.

Traces with clear lines and individual elements enable individual identification of human beings.

In their character they are similar to other chemical and biological traces.

What Is Vermillion Zone?

The lips are the junction between the skin of the face which is Para keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and  the mucosa of the oral cavity which is moist non-keratinized to Para keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

Between these two areas lies a transitional zone of reddish tissue known as the vermillion zone of the lip.

It is this vermillion zone which is commonly denoted as ‘lips’ in forensic identification procedures.


  • The biological phenomenon of systems of furrows on the red part of human lips was first noted by anthropologists R. Fischer in 1902.
  • In 1932, one of the France′s greatest criminologist Edmond Locard, recommended the use of lip print for identification of a person.
  • The idea of using lip print for identification was first suggested by Le Moyne Snyder in the year 1950. He introduced a case in which lip prints helped the crime scientist in an unusual way.
  • Dr. Martins Santos in 1960 proposed that these lip characteristics could be used in personal identification and devised a simple system for classifying lip prints.
  •  In 1967, Suzuki made a detail investigation of the measurement of lips, the use and the colour of rouge and method of its extraction to obtain useful data for forensic application.
  • Later in 1971 Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, conducted a study and they devised their own classification. 
  • Mc Donell in 1972 conducted a study on lip prints between two identical twins and reported that two identical twins seemed to be indistinguishable by every other means but they had different lip prints.
  • Cottone in 1981, reported in his book Outline of Forensic Dentistry, that Cheiloscopy is one of the special techniques used for personal identification.
  •  In 1990, Kasprzak conducted research for the period of 5 years on 1500 persons to elaborate the practical use of lip prints.

Anatomy & Morphology of Lips

Lip of human being consists of 2 parts

1.)  Upper Lip 

2.)  Lower Lip

Both these upper & lower lip are divided into six different regions, which are as follows-

Where,  UL – Upper Left,   UM – Upper Middle,   UR – Upper Right
                LL – Lower Left,   LM – Lower Middle,   LR – Left Right.

Other features of Lips

Following features are also present in lips which is use for individualization & comparison, which are as follows:


In 1967 Santos was the first person to classify lip grooves. He divided them in to four types namely:

  • Straight line
  • Curved line
  • Angled line
  • Sine-shaped line

Tsuchihashi Classification

Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, in 1970, devised a classification method of lip prints as follows:

  • Type I : A clear-cut groove running vertically across the lip.
  • Type I′ : Partial-length groove of Type I.
  • Type II : A Branched groove.

It include branch grooves across the whole lips.

  • Type III : An intersected groove.

It include grooves which are intersecting each other.

  • Type IV : A Reticular pattern

In this type lips contains rectangular grooves.

  • Type V : Other patterns.

Grooves which about fall in any of the above four categories.

Another type of Classification

Another Four types are also used to classified Lip Prints

Lip Groove Types


A – Complete Vertical;                   B – Incomplete Vertical;

 C – Complete Bifurcated;            D – Incomplete Bifurcated;         

 E – Complete Branched;                F – Incomplete Branched;           

 G – Reticular Pattern;                     H – Cross Form;

 I – Horizontal / Complete Horizontal;   J – Horizontal With Other Forms.

 Forms Of Lip Prints Found On Crime Scene

These 3 types of Lip Prints can be found at the scene of crime. Lip prints are available particularly in the following forms-

1.) Visible Lip Prints – These are the Lip Prints which are visible to the unaided eye and it do not need any further development for its visualization.

2.) Latent or Hidden Lip prints – These are the Lip Prints which are not visible to human eye. It requires further development processes for its visualization.

3.) 3-D or Plastic Lip Prints – These are the Lip Prints which are found on soft, gel like surface (wax or butter). They are visible to unaided eye but sometimes need develop processing for photography.

How To Search Lip Prints On Crime Scene

  • The search for possible Lip Prints needs a systematic and narrowly approach to the suspected areas.
  • A magnifying lens is useful to locate and judge the quality of the Lip Prints.
  •  Traces of lips should be looked for on cutlery and crockery items, on the window or door glass and on photograph or letters. Lip print may also appear on side by side with tooth marks on food products. In practice, lip prints have also seen in the windows, painting, doors, plastic bags and cigarette ends.
  • Observation under white light may reveal latent Lip Prints that can be photographed without any further treatment.
  • Lip Prints can frequently be seen by holding the flashlight at low angles so that the surface is observed under oblique lighting.
  • In some cases, latent print can often be detected using episcope coaxial illumination. The print is, therefore, visible as dark ridges against a light background.

The process is concerned with recognition, examination, identification, individualization, and evaluation.

Development of Lip prints

1.} Powder Method

2.} Chemical Method

3.} X-Ray Method

1.}  Powder Method

Following methods are used for developing Lip Prints:-

A powder technique is usually used to identify latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as glass, marble, metal, plastic, and finished wood.

When powder is distributed on the surface, it adheres to the residue deposited from the finger’s touch, allowing investigators to find the print.

  • Following Powder Method Can Be Used To Develop Lip Print-
  • Aluminum Powder Method
  •  Magnetic Powder Method
  • Plumb Carbonate Powder (White Powder)

2.} Chemical Methods

Crime Scene Investigators Often Use Chemical Methods To Locate The Print Such As;

  • Iodine Fuming [must be photographed quickly because Print fades quickly after the fuming takes place],
  • Silver Nitrate (Agno3) [works well on impressions left in cardboard and paper-like surfaces],
  • Ninhydrin, [reacts with the oils in the print’s residue to create a bluish print],
  • Lysochrome Dyes (Sudan 3 Dye And Oil Red ‘O’ Dye/ Red ‘O’ Dye),
  • Small Particle Reagent (SPR).

When one of these chemicals comes into contact with the chemicals present in the Lip Prints residue (natural oils, fats), the print become visual.

3.} X-Ray Method

  •  Lead powder distributed on suspected area with the help of brush.
  •  Dusted area should X-Rayed and then photographic film of X-Ray should treat with required chemicals.

Development of lip prints on Multi colored surface

Following 3 methods can be used to develop lip prints on multicolored surface –

  • Sudan Black Reagent – it can applied directly to the print.
  • Yellow Fluorescent Powder (Illumination through UV light)
  • Nile Red Reagent

Lifting of Lip Prints

There Are 2 Methods Are Applied For Lifting Of Lip Prints-

  • Photographic Method – The developed prints should always be photographed by using a fixed focus camera or variable zoom photographic camera with the help of measuring.
  • Transparent Tape Method – Powder dusted lip prints can be lifted with the help of transparent tape from a liquid and hard surface.

Collection of Lip Prints from Suspect

  • Lip prints can be recorded in a number of ways.
  • Photographing the suspect′s lips.
  • Applying lipstick, lip rouge, or other suitable transfer mediums to the lips and then having the individual press his or her lips to a piece of paper or cellophane tape or similar surface.
  • By having the subject impress his or her lips (without lipstick or other recording medium) against a suitable surface and then processing these prints with either conventional finger print developing powder or with a magna brush and magnetic powder.
  • On a non-porous flat surface such as a mirror they can be photographed, enlarged and overlay tracings made of the grooves.

Examination and Comparison

Generally two prints are required for comparison :

  • A lip print recorded from the Scene Of Crime (SoC);and
  • A lip print which has been taken from suspect.

Both compared on the basis of individual characteristics of Lip Prints.

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Diatoms are microscopic unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae that inhabit almost all bodies of water.

They are found in springs, rivers, ponds, lakes, ditches and in freshwater and marine waters and occur in terrestrial habitats such as wet rocks, mosses and soils, even caves.

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Domain – Eukaryota

Kingdom- Chromalveolata

Phylum- Heterokontophyta

Class –Bacillariophyceae

Orders- Centrales & Penales

Diatoms have traditionally been classified according to the shape of their valves, divided into two major structural groups:

  • Centric Diatoms (With valves exhibiting a radial symmetry)
  • Pennate Diatoms (With valves exhibiting bilateral symmetry)


When a dead-body is recovered from water, there is always a question whether it was a case of ante-mortem or post-mortem drowning i.e. whether the body was drowned before or after death. In these medico legal cases, presence of diatoms in the body tissues is very useful evidence.

It helps to differentiate a death by submersion from an immersion of a body.

Laboratory tests may reveal the presence of diatoms in the body.

Their silica-based skeletons do not readily decay and they can sometimes be detected even in heavily decomposed bodies.

If the person is dead when entering the water, then there is no circulation and the transport of diatom cells to various organs is prevented because of a lack of circulation and diatoms cannot enter the body.

If the person is still alive when entering the water, diatoms will enter the lungs if the person inhales water and drowns. The diatoms are then carried to distant parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and bone marrow by circulation.

Since diatoms resist putrefaction, the diatom test is particularly valuable, where decomposition is advanced. Diatom test is negative in dead bodies thrown in water and in dry drowning.

Forensic Limnology

Forensic limnology is a sub-field of forensic botany. this field mainly examines the presence of diatoms in crime scene samples and victims.


Materials taken from victims/suspects/crime scene or Environmental products, i.e. mud

  • Keep in a Test tube with a sulfuric acid and potassium dichromate solution for 24 hours.
  • Centrifuge The Tube.
  • Placed in A boiling water bath for an hour.
  • Pellet Is Extracted.
  • Mixed with distilled water.
  • mounted on a slide with Hyrax.
  • Use phase contrast microscopy for observing Diatoms.

Diatoms have to be cleaned before examination so that any foreign material can not interfere with microscope examination.

The use of diatoms as a diagnostic test for drowning is based upon the hypothesis that diatoms will not enter the systemic circulation and be deposited in such organs as the bone marrow unless the circulation is still functioning thus implying that the decedent was alive in the water.

for the detection and examination of diatom , Hard bones (sternum and femur) and soft tissues (lungs and liver etc.) of drowned bodies are usually sent to the Forensic Science Laboratories.


It’s a faster and less expensive Test. The Soluene-350 method is used only for freshwater samples.

  • The sample should mixed with formalin, rinsed and centrifuged three times with distilled water. 
  • The pellet should removed from the test tube added with 8ml of Soluene-350.
  • After that it should Incubated at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours
  • Then it should Centrifuged again.
  • After all the process it should be Mounted on a slide to see under microscope.


The ‘’’Enzymatic method’’’ is used for tissue samples.

Because of the use of enzyme chemicals it has a smaller percentage of damaging the diatoms collected than acid digestion method.

  • In this method Concentrated Nitric acid and Proteinase-K, or peroxide, should add to the sample for 12 hours,
  • The sample should be Centrifuged Twice before further process.
  • After that it should Rinsed with distilled water
  • Then it should Mounted on a slide with Naphrax
  • After all the process use a light microscope when examining the results.


  • Colloidal Silica Gradient Centrifugation method can be used with liver and lung samples.
  • The collected tissue is added to saline solution, centrifuged at a temperature of 12 degrees Celsius.
  • Then distilled water should be distilled water
  • Then it should be mounted on a slide and observed.


  • The ‘Membrane Filter method’ is used when there is a presence of either damaged diatoms in the sample (result of pollutants) or inorganic materials.
  • The blood of the victim should be taken and filtered through Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and nitrocellulose membranes with decreasing pore sizes.
  • The membranes will be dry and filter with distilled water.
  • After being dried the pieces of membrane that filtered the blood, should be examined for diatoms and pollen grains.


‘Dry Ash method’ can only be applied to a bone marrow sample.

Five grams of marrow should be taken from a victim to be placed in a nitric acid solution and then burnt in a furnace allowing the release of diatoms to then be analyzed. whether the body was drowned before or after death. In these medico legal cases, presence of diatoms in the body tissues is very useful evidence.


  • Samples should be collected from the suspected drowning victim. Care should be taken as to not contaminate the sample with foreign diatoms during the process.
  • For example, Intact femurs are removed at autopsy and washed in distilled water. Femurs are longitudinally sectioned using a clean band saw, and the bone marrow about 50g is removed using a clean spatula and placed into a boiling flask.
  • Approximately 50 mL of conc. nitric acid need to be added to the flask, and the marrow-acid suspension will be boiled on a hot plate for approx 48 hours-under a fume hood.
  • The suspension should be cooled and centrifuged, in some instances at two different times, the supernatant should be discarded and the resulting acid-resistant material dropped onto a clean microscope slide and the sediment examined under the microscope Should be done.


  • First all calcareous compounds have been removed so that the sample will not form gypsum crystals.
  • When sample has settled completely then discard supernatant.
  • Add conc. sulphuric acid until the volume is twice.
  • Just add enough Potassium bichromate to make for a saturated solution.
  • Let stand for 24 hours or more, or speed up the reaction in a water-bath 60 degrees. The sediment should look grayish.
  • Let settle completely, discard supernatant and rinse several times.


Electron or dark phase microscopy is currently the main methods used for analysis. In order to examine the morphology of diatoms, both transmission and scanning electron microscopes are able to provide a much more detailed image. These microscopes were necessary for taxonomic purposes, with the distinctions between species being so minute at times.

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

SEM is best for visualizing the entire diatom Frustule. It is a device that can visualize the gross morphology of the diatom’s both internal and external parts.

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

This type of microscopy is best. with the help of this device we can see the finer, delicate details of the diatom frustule.

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By @forensicfield


1. A fingerprint is an individual characteristic.

  • No two fingers have the same fingerprint.
  • Identical twins are similar but not identical.

2. Fingerprint remains unchanged during a lifetime.

3. Fingerprint has general ridge patterns that permit them to be classified.


Fingerprints follow three basic biological principles:

PATTERN TYPE: – All fingerprints can be classified into pattern types.

UNIQUENESS:-Each fingerprint is unique, no two people have the same fingerprints.

PERMANENCE: -Fingerprints are unchanging from 3 months fetal life until decomposition.


Fingerprint ridges are formed during the third to fourth month of fetal development and their formation completed by the sixth months.

Chance Print

The Fingerprint Left By The Culprit At The Crime Scene Are Better Known As “Chance-prints” And Very Often Found Mainly Of Three Types:

1.) Plastic Prints / Impression

These Occur When A Finger Or Palm Touches Or Presses Against Plastic Material.

These Prints Are Usually Found On Materials Such As Soap, Mud, Pitch, Melted, Wax, Fresh Paint, Putty, Butter, Gum Of Envelop, Grease, Adhesive Tape, Thick Dried Blood, Negative Film, Plastic, Explosive Etc.

Fingerprint Found On These Surfaces Are Of Three Dimensional Natures.

2.) Patent Fingerprints / Visible 

These are prints that are created from the finger contaminated with foreign materials such as blood, paint, grease, ink, oil, dust, mud, soot, dry flour, and face-powder.

3.)  Latent Prints / Invisible

Latent or invisible fingerprints are the most often found at the crime scene on object with polished or smooth-surfaces.

These prints are formed by a combination of dust. Latent prints include those which are invisible to the unaided eye and all others that are visible but only properly examined after development.


Uniqueness:- The characteristics features of a fingerprint are so unique that they are not exactly repeated in any other fingerprint or part of one.

Infallibility:- Fingerprints are now universally recognized as an infallible means of personal identification and identification of criminals.

Durability:- A fingerprint remains unchanged throughout the life of an individual.

Simplicity:-  Records of millions of persons can be kept and retrieved easily with the help of a computer. 

Searching Of Fingerprint From The Scene Of Crime


  • When a criminal acts, he cannot avoid leaving clues in the form of fingerprints unless he wears gloves or something else for protection.
  • The following locations are very much common to find fingerprints:-
1.) The Crime Scene
  • Furniture, Almirah, Boxes, Glass Articles, Crockery, Fridge, Utensils, Bottles, Etc. Should Be Carefully Examined.
  • Walls, Windows, Vehicle, Floor, Doors, Light Switches, Circuit Breakers and Fuses Should Always Be Examined.
  • Good Prints Are Often Found On Glass, China Clay Articles Polished Or Painted And Other Smooth Surfaces Like Photography Paper, Negative Film, Adhesive Tape, Carbon Paper, Etc.
2.)  Point of Entry
  • If A Door Was Broken Or Forcefully Opened, Fingerprints May Be Found On The Locks, Knobs, Handles.
  • If a window was broken, search for pieces of broken glass which may contain fingerprints.
  • Fingerprints May Be Left On The Window, Window Frame, Window Steel And Jamb.
3.)  The Vehicle
  • The Transport Vehicles such as Cars, Jeeps, Motorcycles, Scooters, etc. are likely to bear fingerprint of the culprit or their occupants.
  • Steering, Wheel, Back Review Mirror, Lower Parts Of Dikki And Window Glasses, Etc. may contain fingerprints.
4.) Objects Belonging To The Culprit
  • The culprits very often leave some objects belonging to them which may have excellent chances of bearing fingerprints.
  • Such Objects May Include Shoes, Watch, Tools, Weapon Of Offence, Torch, Liquor Bottles, Poison Bottle, Gas Cutters Assembly, Container Of Fuel Oil Especially In Cases Of Arson, Etc.
5.) Human Bodies
  • Recent techniques have made possible to develop fingerprints on human bodies.
  • Such Fingerprints Are Usually Located On The Skin At Neck, Breasts, Thighs, Wrists And Ankles Regions.

When And How Is Fingerprint Analysis Used?

  • Identification of criminals whose fingerprints are found at the scene of crime.
  • Providing biometric Security
  • Identifying amnesia Victims and Unknown deceased
  • Conducting background checks
  • Identification of missing persons or in cases of kidnapping.
  • Identification of unconscious persons.
  • In mistaken identity.
  • Detection of bank forgeries.

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By @forensicfield


In forensic Field Video image analysis is a new scientific technique for crime scene investigation.

With the help of Videos we can see real time incident. Video recordings can provide a real time eye witness of a crime which make investigation little bit easy for crime scene investigators.

For example- CCTV footage, hidden camera , etc.

In Parties, Riots, Fairs, Agitation, etc. video recordings are very common by people and media which help investigators to identifying the suspect of the crime etc.

Now a days almost every house, mall, shop have a cctv camera which can have footage of that particular place which also helps  in investigations .

Video analysis can be performed on recovered recording to answer the questions of “who” “what” “ when”, “where” and “How” in order to reconstruct an event.

Uses of Video Recordings or Video Image Analysis

1.Compare objects in different videos, or compare them with objects to determine similarity, differences or alterations.

2. Reconstruct incidents to understand the events preceding , during and after an incident.

3. Perform speed calculations to ascertain whether a vehicle was travelling below or above the road speed limit.

4. Present the findings and opinions clearly and effectively in an expert report that is admissible in the courts.

5. Sift out the details in the recording.

6. Fame-by-frame analysis.

Factors Affecting Forensic Video Analysis

1- Quality of video,

2- Distance of the object form the camera,

3- Its angle with respect to the camera,

4- Lighting,

5- Other environmental factors.

Techniques Used In Video Image Analysis

Repair and Recovery Of Evidence

Forensic experts are also able for repairing video evidence and can also recover the evidence like- CD’s, DVD’s , Cell phone, Video Cameras are Commonly used.


By video analysis the images can be enhanced, slow down, enlarge to give a clear view of the recorded image and to track the CCTV footage.

Data Recovery

Digital video recorder (DVR) and the deleted retains can be analyzed and recovered.

Facial Comparison

The facial comparison of two or more images to provide a clear view of the criminal or victim is given by the forensic expert.

Height Calculation And Comparison

By video image analysis we can compare the height of unknown person recorded in CCTV footage can be determined.

Transcoding Service

This technique helps to see cctv footage more clearly in digital form.


it is possible to cover the face of some areas of the videos to protect the witness, victim or the police officers.

Video Stabilization

Reduces the amount of disturbances in the video producing the smoothness.


Sharpening makes images in the recording more clear.

To Corroborate Statements

In many cases video evidences can be used  to corroborate statements.

Evidence Enhancement

Forensic experts can enhanced a video recording, filters can be used to adjust the brightness of the image to correct to color etc. the speed of playback can be adjusted.

Unwanted noise can be removed.


The technique of combining to TV field to in order to provide a full frame of video.


A process called de-interlacing may be used to retrieve the information in both fields of video.

De- Multiplexing

In CCTV system a device called multiplexer is used to combined multiple video signals into single signals or separate a combined signals.

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Wounds / Injuries

By @forensicfield


A wound is any damage or break in the surface of the skin.

Production of wound: A wound is produced when the intensity of the applied force to the body exceeds the capability of the tissue to adapt or resist the force.

According to section 44 of Indian Panel Code “An injury is define as any harm, whatever illegally caused to any person in body, mind, reputation or property.”

Classification of Injuries

Depending upon Medical

Mechanical Injuries
• Due to Blunt Force
– Abrasions
– Bruises/ Contusions
– Lacerations
– Fracture and dislocations
• Due to Sharp Force
– Incised wounds
– Chop wounds
– Stab Wounds
• Due to Firearms

Thermal Injuries
Due to Cold
–Trench Foot
–Immersion Foot
•Due to Heat

-Radioactive material

Depending upon Gravity (Legal)
-Simple Injury
-Grievous Injury

Depending upon time of Infliction

Depending upon the manner of Inflcition
• Homicidal
• Accidental
• Defence wounds
• Self-inflicted/ self suffered
• Fabricated Fictitious injuries



Wound can be caused by mechanical forces having an impact on A tissue. When A mechanical force acts on A tissue and causes. Lacerations and contusions are examples of mechanical injury inflicted on A living tissue.


Chemical agents can cause tissue wounds by necrosis of the skin such as in snake bites, burns of the skin due to acids or by strictures of the esophagus as a result of drinking concentrated alkalis especially in children (a common household accident).

Radiant agents of tissue injury

Radiation could be in various forms such as X-rays, atomic energy, heat, high voltage electricity and intense cold.

Pathogenic Microorganisms

The pathogens make use of chemicals known as toxins which help to dissolve tissue and can cause hypersensitivity reactions. These organisms do not directly cause wound but invade an already existing wound.


Types of Wounds
  1. Open wounds
  2. Closed wounds
  3. Contusion (Bruise)
  4. Laceration
  5. Avulsions
  6. Punctures
  7. Penetration
Open wounds

These are wounds in which there is loss of superficial surface covering the tissue such as loss of skin.

Closed Wounds

These are wounds that occur without a loss of superficial surface covering the wound. The wound occur under the surface of the skin without affecting the skin. An example of this type of wound is contusion. Infection of these wounds is rare and it may resolve without any treatment if it is not extensive.


In this type of injuries the skin in which the outer layer of the skin is scarped off. Examples of the abrasions are scratches, grazing of the skin caused by dragging, imprint caused by belt/hunter/ sticks.


This type of injuries occurs when blood vessels in the skin or internal organ are ruptured. A bruise heals by destruction and removal of the extravasated blood.


Lacerations are tears or splits of skin, mucous membranes, muscle or internal organs produced by application of blunt force or broad are of the body. Types of lacerations are split lacerations (crushing of the skin between two hard objects), stretch lacerations (overstretching of skin), avulsion, tears etc.

Sharp Force Injury

These are caused by cutting or stabbing the skin with sharp instruments/weapons such as knives, swords, tins, broken glass bottles, razor blade and tools.

a) Incised/cuts Injury: This type of wound is a superficial injury in which the size of the injuries on the surface is larger than the depth.

b) Stab or Penetrating Injury- This type of injury is produced from the penetration of pointed or sharp weapons on to the depth of the body that is deeper than its length, generally knives.

Firearms Injury

They are usually recognized without difficulty. The injuries produced by fire arms vary depending on the projectile, the muzzle velocity, distance, angle of firing and part of the body involved. These wound are subdivided as, when a bullet, passing through a body, produces a wound. the point of entrance on the skin known as ENTRY WOUND and another at the point of exit of the bullet known as EXIT WOUND.


 It is the breach of continuity of bone or tooth caused by application of blunt force. Clinical features and X-ray findings are considered to diagnose this type of lesion. In dislocation of joint the bone ends get displaced completely from their normal anatomical positions with damage to the adjacent tissues.

Incised wound

 It is caused by the sharp edge of the weapon applied to the skin perpendicularly or obliquely making regular clean edges of the wound. It is called a slash wound when the length of the wound is greater than its depth.

Blast wounds

These are produced by explosion of bombs and are due to blast pressure wave (shock wave), blast winds, heat, splinters, shrapnels, surrounding small fragments propelled by blast winds.


Burns are caused by flame, heated objects and scalds by hot liquids and vapours or gases.

Bodily harm may also be caused by corrosives, electricity, insecticide, high dose of drugs.

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