ELECTIVE II: CYBER FORENSICS (FACT & FACT Plus 2022)
1) COMPUTER FORENSICS
a) Introduction to Computer Hardware – Various Components of a Computer, Motherboard, Processor, Memory, Storage Devices and Networking components. Understanding Computer Operating Systems (OS), Booting process of computers. Introduction to File Systems and types of File System.
b) Cyber Crime- Form of Cyber Crime, Internal and External Attacks, Crimes related to Social Media, ATM and Banking Frauds. Data Privacy issues, Packet sniffing, Spoofing, Web security.
c) First responder – role and toolkit. Procedure for search and seizure of digital evidences. Search and Seizure of Volatile and Non-volatile Digital Evidence. Imaging and Hashing Digital Evidence. Analyzing and Recovery of Deleted, Hidden and Altered files.
d) Windows Systems Artifacts: File Systems, Registry, Event logs, Shortcut files, Executables. Alternate Data Streams (ADS), Hidden files, Slack Space. Linux System and Artifacts: Linux file system: Ownership and Permissions, Hidden Files, User Accounts and Logs. Mac OS X systems and Artifacts: System Startup and Services, Network Configuration, Hidden Directories, System Logs and User Artifacts
e) Web Browsers: Cookies, Favourites or Bookmarks, Cache, Session Data and Plugins. Email: Types of Email and Protocols. Analysing the Header details and tracking the email, Spoofed Mails. Virtual Machine and Cloud Technology Forensics.
2) NETWORK FORENSICS
a) Computer Networking- Digital and Analog Signaling Methods, Network Types and Topologies, Overview of OSI Model and TCP/IP Protocol. Different types of IP Addresses and Classes, Subnet Masks, Subnetting and Supernetting. Network Hardware Devices and Client/Server Computing. Types of Networks – LAN, MAN and WAN. Routers and Routing Protocols.
b) Network threats and vulnerabilities, Types of network attacks- eavesdropping, spoofing, modification, Cross-site scripting, DNS Spoofing, Routing Table Poisoning, ARP Poisoning, Web Jacking. Attacks on Wireless Networks. Social Engineering Attacks and its types. Packet Sniffing, Types of authentication, Attacks on WEP, WPA and WPA-2 Encryption, fake hotspots.
c) IP security architecture, Security protocols, IPSec, Web Security – Firewalls, IDS, IDPS. Network Security Applications, Authentication Mechanisms: Passwords, Cryptographic authentication protocol, Kerberos, X.509 LDAP Directory. Digital Signatures. Web Security: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Encryption, Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) and Virtual Private Networks (VPN).
d) Monitoring of computer network and activities, Live Packet Capturing and Analysis. Searching and collection of evidences from the network. Network Intrusion Detection and Analysis. SQL Injection, Event Log analysis- tools and techniques. Investigating network attacks. Evidence collection from Routers other networking devices.
e) Cloud Technology and its various components – private, public and hybrid cloud. Cloud types; IaaS, PaaS, SaaS. Role of virtualization in enabling the cloud. Technologies and the processes required when deploying web services. Cloud Security Architecture, Secure Cloud based service, Identity and Access Management, Encryption and Key Management. Cloud Forensic – collection and analysis of evidence.
3) MOBILE AND WIRELESS DEVICE FORENSICS
a) Introduction to Mobile Technologies – Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). Cellular technologies – Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), i-Mode, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and relative strengths. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).
b) Functions of Bluetooth and security issues. Various Generation of Mobile Phone Technologies. Understanding of the mobile phone operating systems – Android, iOS, Windows. Understanding of SQLite Databases.
c) Phone Phreaking, Call tampering, Wireless Hack Walkthrough and Man-in-the-Middle-attacks. Overview of WEP attack. Attacks on WEP, WPA and WPA-2 Encryption, fake hotspots. Wireless Public Key Infrastructure. Securing WLAN, WEP Decryption script.
d) Overview of Mobile Forensics, Seizure and Preservation of mobile phones and PDA. Types of Evidence present in mobile phones – Files present in SIM card, external memory dump, and evidences in memory card. Mobile phone evidence extraction process, Data Acquisition Methods – Physical, File System, Logical and Manual Acquisition. Mobile Forensic Investigation Toolkit. Tracking of mobile phone location.
4) SOCIAL MEDIA FORENSICS AND CRYPTOGRAPHY
a) Introduction to Social Media, Security Issues in Social Media, Types of crimes of Social Media – Cyberbullying, Online Grooming, Cyberstalking. Social Media and its impact on Business, Politics, Law and Revolutions, Emerging Trends in social media,
b) Sources for social media evidence, Types of Data Available on Social Networking Sites, Different evidence collection methods from social networking sites, Intelligence gathering from Social Media- Tools and technique for intelligence gathering– indirect method, direct method with login, direct method without login.
c) Introduction to Cryptography, Symmetric and Asymmetric Cryptosystem Encryption Techniques– Substitutional Cipher and Transpositional Ciphers. Types of keys – Public Key and Private Key. Advanced Encryption Techniques and Security Issues. Various types of attacks including Cipher Text-Only attack, Known-Plaintext Attack, Chosen-Plaintext Attack, Chosen-Cipher text Attack.
d) Symmetric Cryptosystem – AES, DES, RC4, Blowfish. Asymmetric Cryptosystems – RSA, DSA, Elliptic Curve cryptography. Introduction to Cryptanalysis – Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis. Hashing Algorithms – MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3, One-Way Hash, Hash Message Authentication Code.
1. Bolle R.M., Connell J.H., Pankanti S., Ratha N.K. and Senior A.W. (2004), Guide to Biometrics, Springer publications.
2. Goyal R.M. and Pawar M.S. (1994), Computer crimes- concept, control and prevention, Sysman Computer Pvt. Ltd.
3. Jain A.K., Flynn P. and Ross A.A. (2008), Handbook of Biometrics Springer Publications, Springer.
4. Joakim Kävrestad. Guide to Digital Forensics: A Concise and Practical Introduction, Springer 2017
5. John D.W. and Nicholas M.O. (2002), Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information age, McGraw Hill.
6. Lee Reiber. Mobile Forensic Investigations: A Guide to Evidence Collection, Analysis, and Presentation, 1st edition, McGraw-Hill 2016
7. Maria P. and Costas P. (2010), Image Processing: The Fundamentals, Wiley.
8. Marie-Helen Maras. Computer Forensics: Cybercriminals, Laws, and Evidence, 2nd edition, Jones & Bartlett Learning 2015
9. NCJRS Library collection, Best practices for seizing electronic evidence v.3: A Pocket Guide for First Responders, US department of Homeland Security.
10. Robert Moore. Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime, 2nd edition, Routledge 2015
11. Special Report (2nd Edition), Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, NIJ publication.
12. Special Report, Forensic Examination of Digital Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement, NIJ Publication.
13. Sridhar S. (2011), Digital Image Processing, Oxford University Press.
14. Stern D.L. (1993), Preventing Computer fraud, Computing Mcgraw-Hill.
15. Tewari R.K., Sastry P.K. and Ravikumar K.V. (2003), Computer Crime & Computer Forensics, Select Publisher, New Delhi.
16. Veerakumar T., Jayaraman S. and Esakkirajan S. (2009), Digital Image Processing, McGraw Hill. 17. Wold G.H. and Shriver R. (1993), Computer Crime techniques Prevention, New Delhi Galgotia Book Source.