Network Topology – A Complete Overview

Introduction of Network Topology

The structure and placement of components in a computer communication system are known as network topology. The Internet is the most important technology today, and it is dependent on network topology. Bus topology, ring topology, star topology, tree topology, point-to-multipoint topology, point-to-point topology, and worldwide-web topology are some of the topologies accessible. The most popular network topologies deployed and configured in the organization are local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN). The following are some of the benefits of establishing network topology: appropriate network operation, improved network performance, lower operating, implementation, and maintenance costs, error or fault detection, and optimal resource utilization.

What is Network Topology?

It is essentially made up of two words: Network and Topology.

  • A network is a system in which two or more computers (also known as nodes) communicate with one another. These computers, also known as participation nodes, actively participate in the communication process.
  • The topology of these nodes is merely a layout of how they will interact. It is a topology that controls how data flows between nodes.

As a result, it is a configuration of two or more nodes talking with one another, usually over the internet via a specific medium. It facilitates communication among these nodes.

Types of Network Topology

It could be broadly classified into the following different types.

Network Topologies
Network Topologies

Bus Topology

  • A bus topology is a network topology in which each communication node is connected to a cable.
  • This wire is in charge of sending messages from one participant node to another recipient node.
  • This wire is commonly referred to as the “backbone.”
  • The connecting wire is appropriately referred to as the backbone because the network’s flawless operation is entirely dependent on it.
  • Line Topology is a term that is occasionally used to describe it.


  • It is typically utilized on a local area network or LAN.
  • Messages must be sent over a limited number of participant nodes in this case.


  • It is simple to use and comprehend.
  • Cost-effective.
  • Adding a repeater is a simple way to expand the network ( a repeater generally boosts the signal and helps for transmission to longer distances).


  • The bus topology will be brought down by a single cable break.
  • The network becomes slow when there are too many participants nodes.
  • In most bus topologies, the signals are absorbed by terminals, which prevents the signal from repeating.
  • The same signal will repeat to and fro if echoing is not controlled.

Mesh Topology

  • Mesh Topology, as the name implies, creates a mesh of all the interconnected nodes.
  • Each node in this system is connected to every other node through a single one-to-one communication line.
  • Each node has a one-to-one correspondence.


  • A mesh architecture is commonly employed in large networks where the failure of a single node does not affect the entire network.
  • It is commonly assumed that a single fault in a route, cable, or another component will not disrupt the entire architecture.


  • The capacity for fault tolerance is improved.
  • The failure of a single participant node or other equipment like routers has no impact on the entire network.
  • If one of the paths between two nodes breaks down, an alternate path is always available.


  • When there are a lot of participants, the network gets overly complicated.
  • Because of the various paths set up, it gets expensive.

Ring Topology

  • Ring topology connects the nodes of participants to form a ring, as the name implies.
  • The nodes are connected in such a way that the path is formed by a single wire, the ends of which are combined to make a circle.
  • The token idea is used in a ring topology, where the token is sent along with the message to ensure that the message is delivered correctly.


  • A ring topology is a network topology that is meant to generate a ring-type network, either physically or functionally.
  • This ring is built around campus or a building to create a high-speed, adaptable, and reliable network.


  • There is no such thing as a master-slave relationship.
  • Each node is responsible for its part of the system.
  • It may work in a high-capacity network.


  • A single node failure has an impact on the entire network.
  • When the network is too large, troubleshooting can be challenging.
  • The nodes of other members are affected by adding or altering the network.

Star Topology

  • A center hub is usually present in a star topology.
  • This hub is directly connected to each participating node.
  • The hub serves as a focal location for receiving and transmitting messages from sender nodes to other participant nodes.

Use: An Ethernet 10BaseT network is a common implementation of the star topology.


  • A single node failure has no impact on the entire network.
  • As long as the centralized hub is functioning properly, the network can run smoothly.
  • Because the centralized network decreases network administration costs significantly, it is more cost-effective.


  • The topology will be disrupted if the central hub fails.
  • When compared to the bus topology, it is significantly more expensive.

Tree Topology

  • A tree topology is a network topology in which numerous members’ nodes are joined to form a tree-like layout.
  • In most cases, there is a central initiator node that can be compared to a tree’s root.
  • As the root node grows larger, it is connected to other nodes, which might be compared to tree branches.
  • A tree topology is a hybrid of the bus and star topologies.

Use: It is typically utilized when two networks need to communicate with one another.


  • It is simple to scale since adding a new node, such as a leaf node, is simple.
  • The hierarchical chain could be formed by leaf nodes accommodating new nodes.
  • If one of the hierarchical nodes fails, the other nodes are unaffected.
  • Debugging is simple.


  • Forming the hierarchical chain necessitates a massive amount of wire.
  • There is a lot of upkeep required.

Point-To-Multipoint Topology

  • A Point-to-Multipoint Topology comprises one transmitter node and numerous reception nodes on the other side.
  • Point-to-Point communication is the polar opposite of this type of communication.

Use: A common example is a broadcast on a radio station or television.

Advantages: When a message needs to be broadcast to a large number of nodes, it’s easy to disseminate it quickly.


  • Expensive
  • The initial setup is quite high.

Point-to-Point Topology

  • Point-to-point topology is made up of two nodes that communicate directly with each other. A telephonic call, in which two nodes are connected for communication, is a good example.
  • This communication is the polar opposite of point-to-many communication, in which a single sender communicates with several receivers.

Use: A common example is two-way radio communication over a telephone connection.


  • Fast and secure.
  • Single node failure does not affect others.


  • Expensive
  • High maintenance cost

World-Wide-Web Topology

  • This is one of the most extensively used and popular types of topology.
  • It refers to a large network of interlinked websites that are linked to one another.
  • These pages are usually linked together via hyperlinks.

Use: Two attempts to model this topology are the Bow Tie and Jellyfish models.

Why do we Need Network Topology?

  • Proper functioning of a network – Each node must be connected to other nodes using the appropriate sort of topology for a network to function properly. The type of topology used has a big impact on how well devices are used.
  • Plays a crucial role in the functioning of the network – It is critical to choose the right type of topology to adopt for the network to function properly with proper message transmission and reception.
  • Helps us to understand networking concepts – To gain a better understanding of a network and how communication occurs, it is critical to grasp and comprehend the underpinning topology on which the entire network is built.
  • Plays a significant role in upgrading network performance – Its appropriate implementation considerably enhances the network’s performance. A better performing topology aids in improving the rate at which a message is transmitted throughout the network.
  • Reduces operational, implementational, and maintenance costs – On many levels, making the right decision about the sort of topology to use is advantageous. First and foremost, it lowers implementation costs right from the start. Even in the long run, it saves a lot of money on operations and maintenance.
  • Error or fault detection is easy to catch –The decision to select a decent topology proves to be advantageous in every way. Even yet, diagnosing or locating a flaw in the topology is simple.
  • Effective utilization of resources – A solid implementation of this topology will also aid in the efficient use of all network resources. The cost of operations will be reduced automatically if resources are properly utilized.

How will this Technology help in Career Growth?

Networking is, without a doubt, a trendy issue right now. There is a great demand for excellent network engineers. The expansion of the digital network is the primary reason for this surge in demand. Today, every business, whether old or new, is going toward digitization. Every business is looking to grow its network. As a result, good network engineers are in high demand.

It is a technology that’s on the rise. To be more specific, not only network topology but also networking as a whole is in high demand. Furthermore, as more and more businesses migrate to the internet, demand is likely to rise. Even a small business or pharmacy today relies on the internet to do their daily calculation work.

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