Liquors and Beverages


Beverages are any kind of drink other than water. It is derived from Latin word ‘Bever’ means ‘Rest after work’. Some Drinks, Such as; Coffee, Tea, etc. are accepted in regular life.

Types of Beverages/Liquors

Beverages are Divided into Two Categories:-

1.) Non-Alcoholic Beverages/Liquors

2.) Alcoholic Beverages/Liquors

1.) Non-Alcoholic Beverages/Liquors [Alcohol free (or containing less than 0.5%)] :

There are two categories of Non Alcoholic Beverages, which are:

A.) Virgin Drinks / Non Carbonated Liquors

B.) Carbonated Liquors

A.) Virgin Drinks / Non Carbonated Liquors

Non Carbonated drink are those which do not contain carbon dioxide and sparkling taste and ready to drink. Such as; Lemonade, Sports drinks, Fruit juice, Tea, Coffee, Soda, Milk, or Milk based Drinks. unsweetened & Sweetened  tea, juice, fruit punch, sparkling water, etc.

B.) Carbonated Liquors

Carbonated drinks are light and sweet water-based drinks that also contain carbon dioxide to make them bubbly or fizzy. For example- Soda Water, Sparkling Water, Soft Drinks, Mocktail, etc.

2.) Alcoholic Beverages/Liquors:

Alcoholic Beverages are also divided into two types:

A.) Alcoholic Liquors

B.) Non-Alcoholic Liquors

A.) Non- Alcoholic Liquors

i.) Stimulating (Tea, Coffee, Soup, etc.)

ii.) Refreshing (Squashes, Lemonade, Syrups, etc.)

iii.) Nourishing (Milk, Juice, Soups, etc.)

B.) Alcoholic Liquors

Alcoholic liquors are normally differentiated into three categories:

I.) Isopropyl

II.) Methyl

III.) Ethyl

I.) Isopropyl Alcohol

Isopropyl Alcohol also known as Isopropanol or 2-Propanol or Rubbing Alcohol. It is used as disinfectant because of its cooling and disinfecting properties. It is commonly used in medical field. It is also used as cleaner for electronic items due to its evaporation rate. it is bitter in taste which make it unsuitable for drinking.

Chemical Formula: C3H8O

II.) Methyl Alcohol

Methyl Alcohol also known as Methanol and Wood Alcohol. It is used as an Industrial Solvent. It also used in automotive antifreezes, in rocket fuels, and as a general solvents. It is a colorless liquid and also not suitable for drinking.

Chemical Formula: CH3OH

III.) Ethyl Alcohol

Ethyl Alcohol also known as Ethanol. It is used as solvent , in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and, as an additive to automotive  gasoline. It is also used to produce alcoholic beverages. It is an intoxicating ingredients found in alcoholic beverages. it is a colorless, Flammable, and, Volatile liquid with a slight characteristic odor.

Chemical Formula: C2H6O or C2H5OH

Alcoholic Liquors

An alcoholic liquors is a drink that contains Ethanol. It is used as solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and, as an additive to automotive  gasoline. It is also used to produce alcoholic beverages. It is an intoxicating ingredients found in alcoholic beverages. It is a type of alcohol which produced by fermentation of grains, Fruits or other glucose Sources.

Types of Alcoholic Liquors

a.) Distilled

b.) Undistilled (Fermented drinks)

a.) Distilled Alcohol

Distilled liquor are obtained by distillation from wine or other fermented fruit or starchy material that has first been brewed. Distillation is the process of separating alcohol in a fermented brew from its separate parts.

Distilled Alcohol are: Brandy, Gin, Rum, Tequilla, Vodka, Whiskey, etc.

b.) Undistilled (Fermented drinks)

Undistilled liquor also called fermented drinks are obtained by fermentation. Fermentation is the process by which bacteria or yeast chemically converts sugar into ethanol.

Undistilled Alcohol are: Beer, Wine, Champagne, port, cider, etc.

Country Made Liquors

Country Made Liquors are also known as Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFl). This term is used to denote western style hard liquors, such as; Whisky, Vodka, Rum, etc., which are manufactured in India are called as Country Made Liquors. Country Liquors also known as Indian Made Indian Liquor (IMIL), is brewed and sold locally.

Types of Country Made Liquors

1.) Plain Country Spirit

2.) Blended Country Spirit

3.) Spiced Country Spirit

(As per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) norms)

1.) Plain Country Spirit

This is obtained from fermented Cereals, Fruits, Jaggery, Potato, Palm Trees, Mahua Flowers or any other source of fermentable carbohydrates.

2.) Blended Country Spirit

Blended country spirits are blend of pot-still distillate, rectified spirit which may be obtained from fermented grain or any other source of fermentable carbohydrates.

3.) Spiced Country Spirit

Spiced Country Spirits are made of plain or blended country spirit and flavorings with or without color.

% of Alcohol in Popular Beverages/Liquors

Brandy- 35% to 60%

Beer-4% to 6%

Wine- 10% to 12%

Hard Cider- 5%

Rum- 57.5%

Tequila- 40%

Vodka- 40%

Gin- 35% to 55%

Whiskey- 40% to 50%

Illicit Drugs

Liquors can be termed illicit if:

  • The ingredients of liquors are not upto the mark/Standards.
  • Liquors duty has not been paid.
  • If they are produced by unauthorized distillery.
  • Liquors have been kept, sell or purchase in prohibited area.
  • Adulteration in Liquors has been done.
Forensic Analysis Of Alcohol

Suspected Liquors sent to forensic labs for analysis of :-

  • Quality and Quantity of original product
  • Analysis for Toxicological Material
  • For analysis of Inedible mixture
  • For examination of standards
  • Adulteration

Effects of Alcohol in Body


After Consumption of alcohol, it travels down the esophagus into the stomach (20% alcohol absorbed in stomach) and the small intestine (80% is absorbed in small intestine), it directly goes  to the blood stream. After that it uniformly distributed to all part of body fluids. It takes ½ to 2 hours to reach equilibrium.

Time of the absorption of alcohol in body can be affected because of some factors. Which are:

  • Tolerance level
  • Food consumption
  • Exercise
  • Age
  • Drugs
  • Concentration of drink
  • Mental condition, etc.


90% of Alcohol is metabolized in the body mainly by the liver. The brain, pancreas and stomach also metabolize alcohol. Most of the ethanol is broken down in the liver by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which transforms ethanol into a toxic compound called acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), a known carcinogen. Acetaldehyde is short lived, it is quickly broken down to a less toxic compound called acetate by another enzyme called aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH). Acetate then is broken down to carbon dioxide and water, mainly in tissues other than liver.


Alcohol is eliminated through normal routes of excretion (Breath, Sweat, Urine, feces Saliva, Milk). 95% of ingested alcohol is metabolized in liver.

A person eliminate about 7.12 ml/hr with an average of 9.5 ml/hr.

Alcohol -> Acetaldehyde -> Acetate -> Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O)

Medical Examination of Intoxication

  • Smell of Breath
  • State of Clothing
  • Dilated pupils
  • Confusion
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Blurred Speech
  • Tremors in hands, Arm, Feet & leg
  • Passing out (unconsciousness) and can’t be awakened
  • Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths)
  • Short Memory, Poor Recall, Confusion
  • Low body temperature (hypothermia)
  • Blue-tinged skin or pale skin

Chronic Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms:

  • Choking- Because It Depresses Gag Reflex, This Increases The Risk Of Choking On Vomit If person has Passed Out.
  • Seizures- Blood Sugar Level May Drop Low which may cause Seizures.
  • Hypothermia- Body Temperature May Drop So Low which can leads To Cardiac Arrest.
  • Severe Dehydration
  • Stop Breathing
  • Vomiting
  • Death
  • Brain Damage
  • Irregular Heartbeat


Alcohol poisoning treatment can include:

  • Intravenous (IV) fluids to maintain levels of body fluids and vitamins
  • intubation or oxygen therapy in case of irregular breathing and choking troubles
  • Stomach wash or Pumping
  • Hemodialysis (it is a process of rapidly removing alcohol from body)

Fatal Dose

How much alcohol is too much is varies by person to person. Intoxication or poisoning are related to  the amount of alcohol consumed in one time or in short time which is also known as binge drinking. It brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to .08% or higher.

            For woman – 4 drinks within 2 hours;

            For man – 5 drinks within 2 hours.

            200-500 ml for Adult person.

Antidote for Alcohol Poisoning:

Ethanol And Fomepizole

PM Appearances

  • Deep radish-brown, Gastric Mucosa
  • Liver congested, Cirrhosis
  • Degenerated kidney and heart

Determining Alcoholic Strength

  • By Hydrometer- Measured at 60°f, compared with standard chart.
  • By Breathalyzer

Miscellaneous constituents are determined by different tests. Such as;

Essential Oils – Extracted By Petroleum Ether.

Methyl Alcohol – By Schiff’s Reagent.

Glycerol, furfural, Sulphate, Sulphite, Lead, Arsenic – By Various Instrumental Method.

Instruments used for Analysis of Alcohol

  • Gas chromatography with a flame-ionization Detector
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR)
  • Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry
  • Gas Liquid chromatography
  • Schiff’s reagent test
  • Metal Oxide Semiconductor
  • Infra-red spectrometry
  • Chromatographic Acid test
  • Electrochemical Oxidation

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