Forensic Science UGC-NET/JRF Syllabus

Subject: Forensic Science

Code No.: 82

Unit – I

Forensic Science: Definition, History & Development, Scope, Ethics in Forensic Science

Physical Evidence: Nature, Types, Search methods, Collection, Preservation, Packing & Forwarding of Physical & Trace evidence for forensic analyses, Chain of Custody

Crime Scene: Nature, Types, Preservation of Scene of Crime

Criminal Investigations: Unnatural deaths, Criminal assaults, Sexual offences, Poisoning, Vehicular accidents

Courts: Types, powers and jurisdiction, Admissibility of evidence in Courts, Definition of Experts, Provisions in Cr.P.C.,1973 & Indian Evidence Act relating to experts & their reports; Court Procedures pertaining to Expert Testimony & Witness

►Organization of Forensic Science Laboratories of Centre and State, NCRB and NICFS

Fundamental Rights: Right of Equality (Articles 14 to 18) and Right of Freedom (Articles 19 to 22) as per Constitution of India

Criminal Profiling: Profile of victim and culprit, its role in crime investigation, Lie detection (Polygraphy), Narco analysis, Brain mapping, scope and limitations

►Concept of quality control management in Forensic institutions

Unit – II

Microscopy: Polarizing, Comparison, Stereoscopic, Fluorescent and Electron Microscopes

Spectrophotometry: UV, Visible, IR, Raman, Atomic absorption, Emission

Neutron Activation Analysis

►X – rays and x-ray based techniques such as XRD, XRF

►Mass Spectroscopy

Chromatographic Techniques: TLC, GLC, HPLC, HPTLC

Hyphenated Techniques: GC-MS, LC-MS, IR-MS and ICP-MS

Electrophoresis: High and Low voltage electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis

Immunoassays: Principle, Types ,Techniques and applications

Unit – III

►Detection and Identification of Blood stains

►Determination of Species of Origin

►Blood Group Systems

►Techniques of Determination of Blood groups of Blood Stains

►Detection of Seminal and other body fluids and their Blood Grouping, Red cells Enzymes, Serum Proteins of forensic significance

►Disputed Paternity & Maternity

DNA: Structure, DNA as genetic marker, DNA Extraction and Profiling Techniques

►DNA Phenotyping and RNA Profiling & their applications

Wild life Forensics: Wild life (Protection) Act,1972, Scope, Evidences and Identification

Unit – IV

Analysis of Ethyl alcohol in beverages , liquors, biological fluids and breath

►Analysis of Methanol and Denaturants

►Illicit liquors

►Analysis of Chemicals in Trap Cases

Metabolism and Chemical examination of: Insecticides & Pesticides, Tranquillizers & Sedatives, Hypnotics Stimulants, Narcotics, Opiates, Drugs of abuse; Analyses of above and their Toxicity

►Plant Poisons

►Metallic Poisons

►Extraction, Isolation & Clean-up procedures, Identification of common poisons from viscera, tissues and body fluids

Unit – V

Firearms: Types, Classification, Ammunition and their Compositions

►Forensic examination of Firearms, Ammunition, Firearms’ projectiles (Bullets, Shots, Slug etc.), Shell case

►Gunshot residues analysis

►Concept of Velocity, Penetration, Dispersion, Ricochet, Accidental Discharge, Determination of Range in firearm cases

►Examination of Country made firearms

►Basics of Internal, External and Terminal Ballistics

►Tool marks: Meaning, Types and Examination

►Restoration of Erased Markings on Metal Surfaces

Unit – VI

Fire and Arson: Analyses of Petroleum Products and other incendiary materials

Explosives: Definition, Types and Analyses

Bombs: Country made bombs, Improvised Explosive Devices ( IEDs ) and their examination

►Investigation in Explosion and Arson related cases

Photography: Types, application in criminal investigation & Forensic evidence examination

Unit – VII

Hair & Fibers: Nature, Types, Structure and Examination

Pollens and Diatoms: Their application in Forensic investigation

Dust & Soil: Nature, Types, Forensic Examination

Paint, Lacquer & Varnishes: Nature, composition and forensic examination

Glass: Composition, Types, Fractures, Examination

Cement, Mortar and Concrete: General Composition, Forensic Analysis

►Computer Forensics: Introduction, Types of Computer crimes, Digital evidence- Seizure, Acquisition and Forensic examination

►Mobile Phone Forensics

Unit – VIII

Fingerprints: History, Characteristics, Types, Classification, Preservation, Development, Lifting and Comparison, Examination of Chance Prints, Computerization of Fingerprints, AFIS

Track Marks: Foot Prints, Shoe Prints, Tire Marks, Their Preservation & Casting, Comparison, Skid marks. Gait pattern

►Biometric Systems of Identification and its relevance

Voice Analysis: Introduction, Significance, Structure of Human Voice apparatus, Voice spectrography, Voice analysis, Legal aspects and limitations

Unit – IX

Documents: Definition, Types, Preliminary examination of documents

►Reproduction of documents through photographic and mechanical means and their examination

►Examination of Alterations such as Erasures, Obliterations & Additions

►Indentations, Secret writings and Charred documents

►Inks, Papers and their scientific examinations with modern methods

►Age of documents

►Examination of Typescripts, Printed matter including currency notes and lottery tickets. Mechanical impressions

Handwritings: Class and Individual characteristics of Handwritings, Factors affecting handwritings, Standard samples for comparison, Comparison of hand-written texts

►Anonymous and disguised writings

►Identification of hand writings, signatures, detection of forged signature and forgeries

►Examination of Credit Cards and Similar materials

Unit –X

►Modes & Manner of deaths, Sexual offences and its medicolegal importance, Amendments in law related to sexual offences

►Post – mortem examination and Post – mortem changes, Estimation of time since death

►Injuries & Wounds: Types, Medicolegal importance, Gunshot wounds

►Determination of Species of Origin, Sex , Age, Stature, and individual identification through skeletal remains

►Identification through Skull superimposition and facial reconstruction

►Human dentition, Type of teeth, determination of Age, Bite marks

Forensic Entomology: Introduction, Insects of forensic importance, Insects on Carrion, Forensic applications

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