Research Methodology

Research
Re=Again, Search= To look for something

Discover or look as well as verify new information.

A common definition of Research is “A thorough examination or inquiry, particularly via the exploration of new facts in any field of knowledge, is known as research.”

Research is an inquiry or experimentation directed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, modification of existing theories or laws in light of new facts, or practical application of such new or updated theories or laws.

Research Methods:

Research methods provide the specific details of how one accomplishes a research task (procedure and methods).

Types of Research:

► Basic Research – Basic Research focuses on determining or establishing the basic or fundamental relationships within a discipline without paying attention to any practical applications to the real world.

► Applied Research – Applied research is usually conducted to solve a particular and concrete problem.

► Descriptive Research – Descriptive research attempts to determine describe, or identify what is.

► Analytical Research – Analytical research attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be. This is usually concerns itself with cause-effect relationships.

► Quantitative Research – Systemically observe changes in the phenomena of interest while manipulating what are believed to be casual influences.

► Qualitative Research – May be more concerned with the individual’s personal experiences of the problem under study.

► Disciplinary Research – By disciplinary research, we mean research “designed to improve a discipline”.

► Subject-Matter Research – means research “on a subject of interest within a discipline.

► Problem solving Research – means research ‘designed to solve a specific problem for a specific decision maker.’

Process of Research:

Step 1: First formulate your Question/Problem/Field of Study

Step 2: Figure out how you are going to answer it

Step 3: How have others answered it?

Step 4: How does your proposal fit in with what others have done?

Step 5: How will you accomplish, when you have answered it?

Step 6: How will you accomplish, when you have answered it?

Step 7: Present your findings to the specific questions.

Essential steps in Research:

1. Formulation of Research problem:

i) Selection of Subject

ii) Selection of Field

iii) Selection of Topic

iv) Selection of Significance

v) Specific Problem of Research

2. Extensive Literature Survey:

i) General survey of the already published knowledge

ii) Development of a Bibliography

3. Developing the Hypothesis:

I) Definition of problem including differentiation

II) Defining and classifying components

4. Preparing the Research Design

i) Determining the parameter required to be studied for solution of the problem.

ii) Choosing the methodology of study the parameters

iii) Standardizing the methodology and testing its suitability for the specific problem

iv) Designing the Experiment, field study/survey with appropriate statistical background.

Essential Steps in Research

Planning

Step 1: Statement of The Problem.

Step 2: Literature Review

Step 3: Choice of Research Method

Step 4: Design of Study

Step 5: Data Collection

Step 6: Analysis of Data

Step 7: Write

Objective of Research

Each Research has its own Specific Purpose:

1. To portray accurately as characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.

2. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights.

3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or associated with something.

4. To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.

Need for Review of Literature

1. To assess the level of theory and research that has been developed in the field of research.

2. To understand the established concept, definition and variables in the chosen field.

3. To identify and adopt the research design, analytical methods, scales, instruments, data analysis, etc.

4. To become fully aware of all difficulties of problem.

5. To learn how to write a research report.

Process of Review:

1. Location of current pertinent in publications.

2. Summarizing the contents of each publication

3. Comparing on merits and weaknesses in the theoretical perspectives, definitions, research design, methodology, instrumentation, data analysis and inferences.

Literature Citation:

The following three systems should be used to cite literature:

1. Name-Year or Harvard System (Author’s Names, Year, Title, Findings)

2. Citation Sequence or Order System (In different years and findings)

3. Alphabets-Numbers System

Fact in Research:

A fact is a verifiable observation or phenomenon. A fact is usually presented in terms of variable.

Variable:

Variable is a quantity of something which varies and the researcher is interested in.

There are two types of variables:

a.) Discrete (or discontinuous) and,

b.) Continuous variables.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a tentative assertion of a relationship between factors or events that Is subject to verification or rejection. In simple words Hypothesis is a single statement that attempts to explain a single interesting or puzzling phenomenon.

• Probability of Research

• The exception that “proves” the rule

• Scientific “truth” is actually a statement of what is most probable, given in the currently known data.

• Studies carried out within the given framework

• Statistical technique that help us to know the extent to which our results really do support the hypothesis.

• A hypothesis makes a prediction of the expected outcome in a given situation.

• If the experiment works, the hypothesis is shown to be probably correct.

Null Hypothesis – The null hypothesis is that any observed changes in behavior are due to chance.