Human Anatomy (A Complete Overview)

Meaning of Anatomy: Anatomy is derived from the Greek term “Anatome,” which means “to cut up.” It is the study of the structures that make up the human body and how they connect with one another.

Every live cell, tissue, and organ in the human body is made up of both living and nonliving components that constitute the whole structure of the human organism.

The head, neck, torso, arms, and legs are the five main components of human anatomy on the exterior. However, there are innumerable biological and chemical interactions beneath the epidermis that keep the human body machine running.

Our bodies are made up of a variety of biological systems:

These perform specialised functions that are required for daily life. We’ll take a closer look at that here.

Circulatory System:

The cardiovascular system and the Transport System are other names for the circulatory system. The circulatory system’s function is to transport blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones throughout the body. The heart, blood, blood vessels, arteries, and veins are all part of it. The network of blood arteries, veins, and capillaries in the human body is about 60,00 miles (roughly 96,560 kilometres) long, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

Circulation is made up of two main components:
✔Systemic circulation
✔Pulmonary circulation

Nervous System:

The central nervous system controls and maintains both voluntary and involuntary behaviours. It aids in the transmission of messages to and from various sections of our body.

The nervous system is divided into two categories:
The Central Nervous System (CNS),
Peripheral Nervous System,

The brain and spinal cord are both part of the central nervous system.

Nerves that connect every other portion of the body to the central nervous system make up the peripheral nervous system.

The Central Nervous System is made up of the following parts:

The cerebrum, hypothalamus, and thalamus make up the forebrain. The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. The key activities of this part of the brain are thinking, sensing, directing motor function, receiving and processing information, and comprehending language. The forebrain also controls sexual development and emotional functioning.

Between the hypothalamus and the thalamus is the midbrain. The midbrain is linked to the brain stem. The midbrain is in charge of auditory and visual responses.

In the hindbrain, the medulla, pons, and cerebellum are all connected. The Hind brain connects different sections of the brain’s surface, which serves to accommodate neurons and connect them to the spinal column.

The Peripheral Nervous System is made up of the following parts:

The major function of the somatic nervous system is to convey motor and sensory impulses from the CNS to the body. It is connected to all of the sense organs, as well as the limbs and the skeletal system.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a system that functions without a person’s conscious effort. The system assists in the transmission of impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscles and involuntary organs like the heart and lungs. It also prepares the body for any violent attacks or aberrant conditions, such as a high body temperature caused by a fever or a rapid rate of breathing and blood pressure caused by vigorous activity.

Digestive System:

The digestive system is made up of a group of interconnected organs that work together to break down and absorb food as well as eliminate waste. The mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus are all part of it. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the liver and pancreas play a function in the digestive system by producing digestive fluids containing enzymes that break down the components of your food, such as carbs, lipids, and proteins.

Mastication is the first step in the digestive process (chewing food). The saliva then combines with the food to create a bolus, a small circular mass that is easy to swallow. Food moves down the throat and into the stomach after being swallowed. Strong acids and enzymes are secreted by the stomach, which break down the food into a paste.

The food is subsequently broken down considerably further in the small intestine, due to bile secreted by the liver and potent digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas. This is the point at which nutrients from the food are absorbed.

As water is eliminated, the residual materials (stool) pass on to the large intestine, where they change from liquid to solid. Finally, it is pushed into the rectum, where it is ready to be eliminated.

Urinary System:

The urinary system aids in the elimination of urea, a waste product formed when certain foods are broken down. Two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra make up the entire system. The kidneys create urine, which flows down the ureters to the bladder and out through the urethra.

Endocrine System:

The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones travel to numerous tissues and affect many biological functions such as metabolism, growth, and sexual function. To regulate blood sugar, one of the pancreas’ glands, known as the endocrine gland, releases hormones called insulin and glucagon.

Immune System:

The immune system protects the body from potentially harmful bacteria, viruses, and other infections. Antigens (proteins on the surface of bacteria, fungi, and viruses) connect with receptors on immune cells, alerting the body to their existence and sending the immune system into motion. I lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B-cells and T-cells), the thymus, and leukocytes (white blood cells) make up the system.

Lymphatic System:

Lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels are all part of the lymphatic system, which also aids in the body’s defences. It’s primary function is to produce and move lymph, a clear fluid containing white blood cells that assist the body fight infection. Excess lymph fluid is also removed from human tissues and returned to the bloodstream by the lymphatic system.

Muscular System:

The muscular system of the body is made up of approximately 650 muscles that help in movement, blood flow, and other physical activities. Muscle is divided into three types:
Skeletal Muscle, which is related to bone and aids voluntary movement,
Smooth Muscle, which is found inside organs and aids in the passage of substances through organs, and,
Cardiac Muscle, which is situated in the heart and aids in the pumping of blood.

Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Reproduction System:

The genital system, commonly known as the human reproductive system, is made up of internal and external organs that assist in reproduction. It differs between males and females. Hormones, fluids, and pheromones are all necessary components for the reproductive organs to work properly.

Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system includes the following:

Ovaries: Ovum (female egg) and oestrogen are produced by the ovaries.

Uterine Tubes: The uterus, also known as the womb or oviducts, is a pear-shaped organ in which the foetus develops. The cervix acts as a channel for sperm to enter the vagina.

System of Male Reproduction

Testicles, which serve as sperm storage, are part of the male reproductive system. These oval-shaped organs are housed in the scrotum.

The accessory ducts for the male sexual system are the vas deferens, which are located next to the testis. When sperm is created, it comes into contact with fluids produced by the seminal glands, prostate gland, and Cowper’s gland. Cowper gland’s main function is to increase semen volume and lubrication during coitus.

Also read: Weight of Human Organ

Respiratory System:

In the process of breathing, the respiratory system permits humans to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The trachea, diaphragm, and lungs are the most important parts.

Carbon dioxide and oxygen molecules are exchanged passively between blood cells and the external environment via diffusion. This exchange takes place in the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs. Exhalation results in carbon dioxide leaving the body and inhalation results in oxygen entering the body.

The respiratory system is Consists of the following organs:
• Trachea
• Bronchi
• Bronchioles
• Lungs
• Diaphragm

Integumentary System:

The skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands make up the integumentary system. The skin is only a few millimetres thick, but it is the body’s largest organ. The average person’s skin weighs about ten pounds and covers over 20 square feet. The skin is the body’s exterior layer and serves as a barrier against toxins, disease, UV light, and physical harm.

Skeletal System:

The most essential aspect of the human anatomical structure is the skeleton system. It is only with help of the skeletal system, a body attains its rigidity. It is the basis of the body, comprising of bones and additional connective tissues that defend and maintain the body cells and internal organs. The human skeleton comprises 206 bones out of which six are the small bones of the middle ear that play role in the auditory process. However, a newborn baby has 300 bones, some of them fused to finally result in 206 bones at a later age.

Also Read: Number of Bones in Human Body

The skeletal structure of a body is embraced of bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilages. The chief utility of the skeletal structure is to provide support and movement to the body. Besides this, the skeletal system protects the inner structures and delicate body organs like the heart, brain, kidney, lungs, etc. The cranium protects the brain and eyes, while the ribs defend the heart and lungs. Similarly, the vertebra protects the spinal cord. The bones are held with the help of tendons which are hard inflexible bands. A usual bone has an external coating of the firm or compacted bone that is extremely durable, thick, and hard, and below it, there is a specific coating of spongy bone, that looks like a honeycomb, lighter, and a little stretchy. The central of certain bones have jelly-like bone marrow, in which new cells are continuously formed for the blood.