PHYSICAL EVIDENCES

By @forensicfield

🔦WHAT IS PHYSICAL EVIDENCE?

✔Physical evidence is any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or perpetrator.
✔Anything can be physical evidence which can connect crime scene to criminal.
✔“In simple words to count physical evidences cannot be possible.”

🔦Types of Physical Evidences

  1. Body Material:
    Body fluids or materials found at a crime scene might include ::
    🔘In case of poison main parts of body such as Liver, Gall bladder, Brain, Kidney, Small intestine, Pancreas, Uterus, Heart and Lungs should be analyzed.
    🔘Blood, Semen, Saliva and Vomit in dry or liquid state.
    🔘Hair, Nails, Skeleton, Bone.
  2. Botanical matter:
    🥦PLANTS
    🍇FRUITS
    🍉SEEDS
    🌿LEAFS
    🌴WOOD, etc.
  3. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE:
    🚫EXPLOSIVE- any object that has a residue of an explosive is useful.
    ⚫ALCOHOL
    ⭕PAINT
    💊DRUGS, etc.
  4. Weapons:
    ✔Firearms
    ✔Pistol
    ✔Revolver
    ✔Gun
    ✔Bullet
    📍Cover, etc.
    🔑Other arms, such as;
    🗡Knives
    ⛏Axe
    🏹Arrow
    ⚔Sword
    🔨Hammer
    ✂️Scissors
    🏉Stone, etc.
  5. DISPUTED DOCUMENTS:
    Examinations and comparisons conducted by document examiners can be diverse and may involve the following:
    ✔Typewriters, photocopiers, printers, fax machines.
    ✔Handwriting (cursive / printing) and signatures. Alterations, additions, erasures, obliterations.
    ✔Indentation detection and/or decipherment. Cheque writers, rubber stamps, markers.
    Physical matching. Ink, pencil, paper.
  6. Petroleum substance:
    ⚫Any type of petroleum substance which is likely related to criminal act.
    Such as kerosene oil, petrol, etc.
  7. Tool marks:
    ⭕Tool mark as any impression, cut, gouge, or abrasion caused by a tool coming into contact with another.
    ⭕They consist of small, commonly microscopic, indentations, ridges, and irregularities present on the tool itself. For example, the tip of a screwdriver is never perfectly flat, but shows small ridges along its edge.
  8. Impression:
    ✴Finger prints
    ✴Tier marks
    ✴Footprints
    ✴Shoeprints etc.
  9. Fibers and textile:
    🧤In Many Cases, Clothes And Rope Are Used In Many Forms.
    📜Natural fibers
    📜Artificial fibers
    📜Threads
    📜Ropes
    📜Clothes
  10. Soil:
    🔅Sand
    🔅Clay
    🔅Slit
    🔅Peat
    🔅Loam
    🔅Chalk
    🔅Which stick with Tiers, Mudgaurd, Shoes, Clothes, etc.
  11. Glass:
    🔎Pieces of glass ,such as
    🔎Any Window/ Glass Door
    🔎Glass bottle
    🔎Watch
    🔎Spectacles
  12. Objects of criminal:
    📃IDENTITY CARD
    📒DIARY
  13. Other evidence:
    ◾Any other substances found on crime scene not described before in previous slides should be considered of this category.
    ◾For ex after collision of new building or bridge, sample of debris is physical evidence.
    ◾Things which have numbers. Like, engine, chesis, etc.

🔦Information that can be obtained from Physical Evidence

📍CORPUS DELICTI:
⚀The Latin term corpus delicti refers to the principle that there must be some proof that a crime has been committed before a person can be convicted that crime.
⚀Corpus delicti literally means body of crimes.

📍Identification of suspect:
Fingerprints are valuable evidence to identify and individualize suspect.

📍Linking suspect with victim:
At the time of crime blood, hair, fiber, etc. can be exchange between suspect and victim which establishes connection.

📍Linking of suspect with scene of crime:
Fingerprints, shoeprint or footprint, blood, semen, fiber, hair, tool marks, tier impression, bullet, soil ,etc. are evidences which can establish links from suspect to scene of crime.

📍Providing investigative leads:
Physical evidences leads police officers in criminal investigation.

📍Information about modus operandi:
Criminals, specially habitual criminals have same type of crime manner. Same criminal pattern of behavior helps to caught criminals.

📍Verification of statement:
Statement of person(victim, witness, criminal) can be tested After examination and reconstruction of physical evidence.

🔦Nature of Physical Evidence

A. Identification by class characteristics-
Every item has a measurable features of an item that indicate a restricted group source based on design factors determined prior to manufacture.
✔Physical evidences first identify by its class characteristics.
B. Comparison and individualism-
Marks on an object produced by the random imperfection or irregularities on the surfaces of the tools used to manufacture the object.
✔Individual characteristic confirm the object.

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Physics Evidences

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