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Questioned Document Examination (Chapter 1)

Question: What is Document?

Answer: A word Document is refer to something that contains information. That information can be held on wax, tapes or stored electronically. In another words documents are those which is not only made of paper but also other materials which can bear written messages for example boards, walls or even bodies can bear written messages.

Section 3 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872 defines Document as, “Document” means any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, for the purpose of recording that matter.

Illustrations –

A writing is a document;

Words printed, lithographed or photographed are documents;

A map or plan is a document;

An inscription on a metal plate or stone is a document;

A caricature is a document.

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Read more : Questioned Document Examination (Chapter 2)

Questioned Document

Question: What is Document?

Answer: Document is any material that contains marks, symbols, or signs, visible or partially visible & convey meaning or message.

Question: What is Disputed Document?

Answer: When there is an argument or controversy on the document is known as Disputed Document.

Question: What is Questioned Document?

Answer: Questioned Documents is a document which is in question because of its origin, its contents, or circumstances regarding its production arouse suspicion as to its genuiness or it may adversely scrutinized simply because it displeases someone.

Question: What are the standards for Documents?

Answer: There are Two kinds of standard:

1. Procured or collected Documents: These types of documents are obtained from files.

2. Requested Documents: These types of documents made upon the request of an investigator.

Question: How to obtain Collected Standards?

Answer: Collected Standards can be obtained by following Methods:

1. Collect at least 15-20 standards;

2. Collected standards should bear similarity of subject matter;

3. The date of preparation must be five (5) years before & five (5) years after the incident happened;

4. There should be similarity of the instrument used in writing;

5. The writing condition and the manner of execution must be similar to the execution of the questioned writing.

Question: How to obtain Requested Standards?

Answer: Requested Standards can be obtained by following Methods:

1. Dictate, never allow the suspect to see the document;

2. The text that is to be dictated must be carefully selected; Do not dictate exactly the content to prevent familiarity of the document;

3. Dictation must be conducted for three times;

4. Dictation must be interrupted & on an interval basis so that the subject will feel relax and write in his own natural writing.

5. The normal writing condition of the subject must be arranged, so that the writer will feel to write the dictation.

Question: How to prepare & examine Typewriting Standards?

Answer: For preparation and Examination of Typewriting Standards following methods are used:

1. Examine the ribbon;

2. Use the same size of questioned materials, same word, typographical errors & same degree of touch;

3. Prepare the standard while the typewriter is in stencil position;

4. State the make, model, serial number, date & initial of the officer;

5. Typewriter should be kept in current condition.