Forensic Science as an career option is one of the most interesting job it offers you. You don’t have to sit idly and type in your computer, it gives you a field which can draw anybody’s interest full of things and work and, lots of studying and at the same time new research required in this field because it is emerging and it is important to find something that can give early result.
This blog is for those who are confused about this field (Forensic Science), they should pursue it or not.
You want to know if this field is has a vast scope or not. I want to say that no field is good or bad, the choice, interest and time make it work. Don’t go for higher job opportunities, see if you can grab the only available job with your potential.
Is that field or subject suits your personality?
At This time when everyone is struggling with job crisis then no field is going to provide you one without dedication and knowledge and as you know forensic do not seek for knowledge only it also seek for reasoning, logic, sharpness.
So know yourself first so no one can reject you.
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Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science.
Every object, natural or man-made, has an individuality which is not duplicated in any other object.
1. Law of Individuality
Anything and everything involved in a crime, has an individuality. If the same is established, it connects the crime and the criminal.
This principle at first sight appears to be contrary to common beliefs and observations. The grains of sand or common salt, seeds of plants or twins look exactly alike.
2. Principle of exchange
Contact exchange traces is principle of exchange. It was first enunciated by the French scientist, Edmond Locard. Commonly known as Edmond Locard’s maxim on Interchange.
According to the principle, when a criminal or his instruments of crime come in contact with the victim or the objects surrounding him, they leave traces. Likewise, the criminal or his instruments pick up traces from the same contact.
3. Law of progressive change
“Change is inevitable” , this also applies to object. Different types of objects may take different time spans.
The criminal undergoes progressive changes. If he is not apprehended in time, he becomes unrecognizable.
The scene of occurrence undergoes rapid changes. The weather, the vegetable growth, and the living beings make extensive changes in comparatively short periods.
Samples degrade with time, Bodies decompose, tire tracks & bite marks fade, the firearm barrel loosen, metal objects rust, etc.
4. Principle of comparison
“Only the likes can be compared” is the principle of comparison.
It emphasize the necessity of providing like samples and specimens for comparisons with the questioned items.
A questioned hair can only be compared to another hair sample, same with tool marks, bite marks, tire marks, etc.
A specimen obtained by writing on the same wall, at the same height and with the same instrument and then photographed. It can be matched.
Once handwriting available on a photograph allegedly written on a wall was compared with the specimen written on paper. It did not give worthwhile results.
5. Principle of analysis
The Analysis can be no better than the sample analyzed.
Improper sampling and contamination render the best analysis useless.
The principle emphasizes the necessity of correct sampling and correct packing for effective use of experts.
6. Law of probability
All identification, definite or indefinite, are made, consciously or unconsciously, on the basis of probability.
Probability is mostly misunderstood. If we say that according to probability a particular fingerprint has come from the given source, but it is not a definite opinion.
Probability is a mathematical concept. It determines the chances of occurrence of a particular event in a particular way.
If “P” represents probability, “Ns” the number of ways in which the event can successfully occur (with equal facility) and “Nf” the number of ways in which it can fail ( with equal facility) , the probability of success is given by the formula:
7. Law Of Circumstantial Facts
“facts do not lie, men can and do”
Evidences given by eye witnesses or victims may not always be accurate.
Sometimes victims may intentionally lie or sometimes because of poor senses (such as low sight, unclear hearing), exaggeration & assumptions.
According to Karl Marx “True belief only becomes knowledge when backed by some kind of investigation and evidence”.
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• Forensic science is the study and application of science to matters of law. • Forensic Science (or Criminalistics) is the use of science & technology to enforce civil & criminal laws. • It is vast & hard to define because it includes so many other areas of science.
Forensic science has developed over the past 300 years or so, and its processes continue to improve and evolve today as science and technology find better and more accurate techniques. In 1929 the first American forensic lab was created in Los Angeles by the police department.
Where and when is forensics used?
These days forensic science is used to investigate nearly all crime scenes. With the advancements of science, most forensic science techniques are a common and necessary part of a criminal investigation.
Why is it important?
There has always been a role for forensic science in criminal investigations, but with criminals committing clever, well thought out crimes more often, forensic science is now an essential tool for criminal investigations.
What skills are involved in forensic science?
Forensic science uses a lot of different skills. These include:
🔎 Observational skills – to be able to find and compare evidence. To be able to discover things the untrained eye may miss. 🔎 Evidence collection and analysis – this is vital to the role of a forensic scientist. Evidence that is collected needs to be well documented and it is crucial that contamination of evidence does not occur. To collect evidence a forensic scientist needs to be methodical and accurate. 🔎 Scepticism – healthy scepticism is an important part of investigating crimes. Everyone is a suspect until something concrete proves otherwise. It is also important to understand that witness accounts aren’t always very accurate. It has been found that when referring to memories (such as during a witness account) most people have trouble getting all details correct and most people’s perceptions are based on their personal lives and values.
Tool kit for a forensic scientist
Those forensic scientists required to find, collect, protect and transport evidence from the crime scene require a kit of tools to use. Although each forensic scientist may do things a little differently, there are typical tools that they all use. These are:
✴ Crime scene tape to secure the scene and the are around which the crime took place. ✴ Camera and film to photograph scene and evidence. ✴ Gauges to place in photos to allow for recording of scale. ✴ Sketchpad and pens for scene sketches. ✴ Disposable and protective clothing (overall suits), face masks and gloves (usually latex gloves). ✴ Torch and other light sources such as laser, ultra violet (UV) and infrared (IR) lighting. These different lights can uncover certain types of evidence that normal torchlight won’t. ✴ Magnifying glass to help with finding trace evidence. ✴ Tweezers for collecting evidence such as hair and fibres. ✴ Cotton wool buds (cotton swabs) for collecting samples of fluid evidence. ✴ Evidence bags (paper and plastic) and evidence tubes (plastic and glass) and marker pen to label evidence. This assists in keeping evidence uncontaminated and allows for safe and easy transport to the lab. ✴ Fingerprint supplies this includes things like ink, print cards, lifting tape, dusting powders (there are a variety of these for different situations) and exposing reagents (such as luminol). ✴ Casting kits for making casts of shoe/footwear prints, animal prints, tyres and tool markings.
Crime scene procedures
When investigators attend a crime scene, generally these procedure is as follows:
✔ Preserving life – whatever the type of crime scene. The first priority is to preserve life and assist any victims if they are injured.
✔ Suspects at the scene – suspects should be detained and removed from the scene. This also allows for searches, statements and behaviour to be documented.
✔ Controlling the scene – the more people who come in contact or visit the crime scene, the more difficult it is to keep the site uncontaminated and for investigators to collect evidence.
Reel Vs. Reality
While on TV shows such as CSI, where Forensic Investigators are seen interviewing witnesses, in “real” life, Forensic Investigators have no contact with witnesses, suspects or others. The role of Forensic Investigators is purely collection and analysis of evidence. It is up to the police to interview and put the pieces of the crime together.
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