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CCTV Footage Importance as an Evidence

Full Form of CCTV: Closed-circuit TeleVision

Other Name: It is also known as Video Surveillance

Work: It uses video cameras and mike to transmit a signal to selected computers.

Admissibility of Electronic Evidences in Court: Electronic documents are admissible as material evidence. The computer generated electronic records in evidence are admissible at a trial if proved in the manner specified by Section 65B of the Indian Evidence Act.

Introduction: Nowadays CCTV cameras are one of the essentials and found almost everywhere; You can see it in malls, road, House, colleges, hotels, shop and many more places where security is needed. CCTV uses in Crime Scene Investigation: As we can find CCTV everywhere and it is capable to record videos in it’s range so it play a very important role in police investigation. With the help of CCTV many crime has been solved, many alibi has been made. CCTV used as an important security instrument by most of places so whenever anything happen it has been used as an instrument in solving the case.

Recently, Ballabgarh murder caught on camera! CCTV footage shows 21-year-old student shot dead in cold blood. CCTV footage was all over the media and every social site platform.

Fact of the case:

👉CCTV footage shows a girl named Nikita Tomar being shot dead by an assailant (Taufeeq) outside her college in Ballabgarh, Faridabad. Shooter and associate flees in car. Police have arrested Taufeeq and his associate. Will Footage will be consider as an direct evidence to prove suspect guilty? Lets know more about it:

Credibility of CCTV Camera in eye of Law: As an eye witness can’t be reliable too much because of his/her memory, turning hostile, may be bought or have any rivalry, CCTV also has its own problem, such as; bad video quality, no audio, blurred footage, etc. Still CCTV evidence has the potential to be conclusive enough to prosecute and CCTV footage is a strong piece of evidence but raw footage alone may prove to be inadequate so witness or other evidences are highly needed.

Question: What type of evidence is CCTV?

Answer: CCTV is a Circumstantial Evidence.

Question: What is a Circumstantial Evidences?

Answer:   Circumstantial evidence are those from which the desired conclusion may be drawn .  Circumstantial evidence is referred to as indirect evidence.

Role of Forensic Scientists

✍Work of Forensic starts from here. When the quality of the footage is poor, it can be very difficult to clearly identify the person visible in the video. There is technique named as Facial Mapping which can be used to identify the subject of the CCTV recording by comparing facial proportions and the distances between their features to a known image of a Person/victim/suspect. The findings of facial mapping can offer an indication of how likely it is that the person in the known image and the person in the CCTV image are the same. This work come under Forensic Physics Division.

Gait Analysis:

✍If the CCTV failed to capture the clear images, do not show the suspect’s face, then gait analysis can also be used to identify. Gait analysis means manner of walking is also studied in forensic science and used to track the person by comparison of actual walk with the video walk.

After applying all forensic applications and methods this alone can’t prove suspect guilty if other evidence and witnesses does not turned against the suspect.

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VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

In forensic Field Video image analysis is a new scientific technique for crime scene investigation.

With the help of Videos we can see real time incident. Video recordings can provide a real time eye witness of a crime which make investigation little bit easy for crime scene investigators.

For example- CCTV footage, hidden camera , etc.

In Parties, Riots, Fairs, Agitation, etc. video recordings are very common by people and media which help investigators to identifying the suspect of the crime etc.

Now a days almost every house, mall, shop have a cctv camera which can have footage of that particular place which also helps  in investigations .

Video analysis can be performed on recovered recording to answer the questions of “who” “what” “ when”, “where” and “How” in order to reconstruct an event.

Uses of Video Recordings or Video Image Analysis

1.Compare objects in different videos, or compare them with objects to determine similarity, differences or alterations.

2. Reconstruct incidents to understand the events preceding , during and after an incident.

3. Perform speed calculations to ascertain whether a vehicle was travelling below or above the road speed limit.

4. Present the findings and opinions clearly and effectively in an expert report that is admissible in the courts.

5. Sift out the details in the recording.

6. Fame-by-frame analysis.

Factors Affecting Forensic Video Analysis

1- Quality of video,

2- Distance of the object form the camera,

3- Its angle with respect to the camera,

4- Lighting,

5- Other environmental factors.

Techniques Used In Video Image Analysis

Repair and Recovery Of Evidence

Forensic experts are also able for repairing video evidence and can also recover the evidence like- CD’s, DVD’s , Cell phone, Video Cameras are Commonly used.

Tracking

By video analysis the images can be enhanced, slow down, enlarge to give a clear view of the recorded image and to track the CCTV footage.

Data Recovery

Digital video recorder (DVR) and the deleted retains can be analyzed and recovered.

Facial Comparison

The facial comparison of two or more images to provide a clear view of the criminal or victim is given by the forensic expert.

Height Calculation And Comparison

By video image analysis we can compare the height of unknown person recorded in CCTV footage can be determined.

Transcoding Service

This technique helps to see cctv footage more clearly in digital form.

Masking

it is possible to cover the face of some areas of the videos to protect the witness, victim or the police officers.

Video Stabilization

Reduces the amount of disturbances in the video producing the smoothness.

Sharpening

Sharpening makes images in the recording more clear.

To Corroborate Statements

In many cases video evidences can be used  to corroborate statements.

Evidence Enhancement

Forensic experts can enhanced a video recording, filters can be used to adjust the brightness of the image to correct to color etc. the speed of playback can be adjusted.

Unwanted noise can be removed.

Interlacing

The technique of combining to TV field to in order to provide a full frame of video.

De-Interlacing

A process called de-interlacing may be used to retrieve the information in both fields of video.

De- Multiplexing

In CCTV system a device called multiplexer is used to combined multiple video signals into single signals or separate a combined signals.

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