Tag Archives: Cannabis

CANNABIS

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

Cannabis is derived from the cannabis plant (cannabis sativa). It grows wild in many of the tropical and temperate areas of the world.

Cannabis is a drug that comes from Indian hemp plants such as Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica.

EFFECT OF CANNABIS

  • Cannabis is a depressant drug.
  • They slow down the activity of the central nervous system and the messages going between the brain and the body.
  • When large doses of cannabis are taken it may also produce hallucinogenic effects.

Cannabis Appearance

Leaves from the cannabis plant are bright green and have a distinctive shape with five or seven leaflets. The flowering tops and upper leaves are covered in a sticky resin.

Cannabis Also Known As:

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ACTIVE INGREDIENT OF CANNABIS

The main active ingredient in cannabis is called delta-9 tetrahydro-cannabinol, commonly known as THC. This is the part of the plant that gives the “high.”There is a wide range of THC potency between cannabis products.

Cannabis Is Used In Three Main Forms:

1. Marijuana

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  • Marijuana is the most common and least potent form of cannabis. Marijuana is the dried leaves and flowers of the plant.
  • It is smoked in hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), or in a pipe (a bong).

2. Hashish

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  • Hashish (“hash”) is dried cannabis resin, usually in the form of a small block. The concentration of THC in hashish is higher than in marijuana, producing stronger effects.
  • It is usually added to tobacco and smoked, or baked and eaten in foods such as hash cookies.

3. Hash Oil.

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  • Hash oil is a thick, oily liquid, golden brown to black in colour, which is extracted from cannabis. Hash oil is the strongest form of cannabis.
  • It is usually spread on the tip or paper of a cigarette and then smoked.

Short-Term Effects of Cannabis

  • Dryness of the eyes, mouth, and throat;
  • Feeling of well-being;
  • Talkativeness;
  • Drowsiness;
  • Loss of inhibitions;
  • Decreased nausea;
  • Increased appetite;
  • Loss of co-ordination;
  • Bloodshot eyes;
  • Anxiety and paranoia.

Long-Term Effects of Cannabis

  • Increased risk of respiratory diseases associated with smoking, including cancer;
  • Decreased memory and learning abilities;
  • Decreased motivation in areas such as study, work or concentration.

Medical Uses

Cannabis has been used for medical purposes for many centuries. It has been reported that cannabis may be useful to help conditions such as:

  • Wasting And Severe Weight Loss, In People With HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Or Anorexia Nervosa, As It May Be Used As An Appetite Stimulant.
  • Nausea And Vomiting, Particularly When Associated With Chemotherapy.
  • Pain Relief, For Example In People With Cancer And Arthritis.
  • Relief From Symptoms Of Some Neurological Disorders That Involve Muscle Spasms, Including Multiple Sclerosis And Spinal Cord Injury.
  • Asthma.
  • Epilepsy
  • Glaucoma

Cannabis is consumed in many different ways:

  • Vaporizer, which heats any form of cannabis to 165–190 °C (329–374 °F), causing the active ingredients to evaporate into A vapor without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 157 °C (315 °F) at 760 mmhg pressure).
  • Smoking, which typically involves burning and inhaling vaporized cannabinoids (“smoke”) from small pipes, bongs (portable versions of hookahs with A water chamber), paper-wrapped joints or tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts, etc.
  • Cannabis tea, which contains relatively small conc. Of THC because THC is an oil (lipophilic) and is only slightly water-soluble (with A solubility of 2.8 mg per liter).
  • Cannabis is added as an ingredient to one of A variety of foods, including butter and baked goods. In india it is commonly made into A beverage, bhang.
  • Capsules, typically containing cannabis oil, and other dietary supplement products.

Substance prepare from cannabis:

  • Marijuana

Marijuana or marihuana (herbal cannabis), consists of the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female Cannabis plant. This is the most widely consumed form, containing 3% to 20% THC, with reports of up-to 33% THC.

  • Kief

Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes, which can be sifted from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish. The word “kif” derives from colloquial Arabic كيف kēf/kīf, meaning pleasure.

  • Hashish

Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a conc. resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves. or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from. It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or ‘vaped’. The term “rosin hash” refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.

  • Tincture of cannabis

Cannabinoids can be extracted from cannabis plant matter using high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create a tincture, often referred to as “green dragon”. Nabiximols is a branded product name from a tincture manufacturing pharmaceutical company.

  • Hash oil

Hash oil is a resinous matrix of cannabinoids obtained from the Cannabis plant by solvent extraction, formed into a hardened or viscous mass. Hash oil can be the most potent of the main cannabis products because of its high level of psychoactive compound per its volume, which can vary depending on the plant’s mix of essential oils and psychoactive compounds.

Detection Of Cannabis In Body Fluids

  • THC and its major (inactive) metabolite, THC-COOH, can be measured in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal offense.
  • Urine contains predominantly THC-COOH, while hair, oral fluid and sweat contain primarily THC. Blood may contain both substances, with the relative amounts dependent on the recency and extent of usage.
  • The concentrations obtained from such analyses can often be helpful in distinguishing active use from passive exposure, elapsed time since use, and extent or duration of use.
  • These tests cannot, however, distinguish authorized cannabis smoking for medical purposes from unauthorized recreational smoking.

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