ELECTIVE I: FORNESIC PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Forensic Document Examination
a) State–of-the-art-equipment: – Working & features of High Resolution Video Spectral Comparators and Electrostatic Detection Apparatus. Working & application of Stereo Zoom Microscope, Crossline Examination System, HPTLC and Raman Spectroscopy in document examination.
b) Care, handling, preservation, packing, marking and forwarding of forensic documents. Analysis of paper & inks. Determination of sequence of intersecting strokes. Preliminary examination of documents. Comparison of alphabets and numerals. Examination of Document under various light sources.
c) Document photography – Basic principles and techniques of black & white and colour photography. Specialized photography – UV, IR, transmitted light and side light photography close up photography, trick photography, contact photography, Photomicrography & Microphotography. Demonstrative and juxtapose charts. Digital photography, file formats for digital photographs, digital watermarking and digital imaging. Photogrammetry & Radiography.
d) Nature & scope of Forensic Document Examination and its limitations. Classification of forensic documents. Various writing features. Natural variations and disguise in hand writing Principle of handwriting identification. Procurement of standards for comparison. Comparison of like with like, suitability of standards for comparison. Effect of intrinsic & extrinsic factors on Handwriting.
e) General and individual writing characteristics, definition and their estimation. Simon New Comb Theory of probability and its application in document examination. Determination of absolute and relative age of documents.
Examination of anonymous letter. Applications of Forensic Linguistics & Stylistics in Document Examination.
f) Types of forgeries and their detection, characteristics of genuine & forged signatures. Difference between tremors of fraud and genuine tremors in writings and signatures. Identification of manipulations in written, typed and computer printouts, identification of digitally manipulated documents. Detection and decipherment of alterations including additions, over writings, obliterations, erasures and secret writings.
g) Principle, working and identifying features of various printers, Various conventional printing processes- their identifying features. Examination of photo copies and scanned documents. Examination of genuine & counterfeit – Indian Bank Notes, MRTDs and Plastic Cards
h) NABL guidelines for accreditation of Forensic Science laboratories. safety management in document laboratories
i) Various Indian laws with reference to IPC –29, 29A, 34, 120B, 409, 415, 416, 418, 420, 467,468, 470, 471, 489(A to E), Indian Evidence Act – Sec 3, 45, 45A, 47, 73 and 114 . Final examination and report writing –different types of opinion writing and writing of reasons for opinion, importance of no opinion / qualified opinion. Debonair of expert and preparation for presentation of evidence in trial courts, examination-in-chief, cross examination by defense and cross examination by expert. Advances in Forensic Document Examination.
1. Ordway Hilton; Scientific Examination of Questioned Documents. Revised Edition, Elsevier, NY (1982).
2. Albert S. Osborn; Questioned Documents, 2nd Ed., universal Law Pub., Delhi (1998).
3. Albert S Osborn; The Problem of Proof, 2nd Ed., Universal Law Pub. Delhi (1998)
4. Charles C. Thomas; I.S.Q.D. Identification System for Questioned Documents, Billy Prior Bates Springfield, Illinois, USA (1971)
5. Wilson R. Harrison; Suspect Documents Their Scientific Examination, Universal Law Pub. Delhi Indian Reprint (2001)
6. Morris Ron N; Forensic Handwriting Identification, Acad Press, London (2001)
7. Kurtz Sheila; Graphotypes a new Plant on Handwriting Analysis, Crown Pub. Inc., USA (1983)
8. Lerinson Jay; Questioned Documents, Acad Press, London (2001)
9. Mcmenamin Gerald R, Forensic Linguistics-Advances in Forensic Stylistics, CRC Press, Washington Dc
10. Ellen Davin; Questioned Documents – Scientific Examination, Taylor & Francis, Washington (1997)
11. Roy A Huber, AM Headrick, Handwriting Identification-Facts & Fundamental, CRC Press (1999)
12. Andrea Mc Nichol, Jeffrey A Nelson; Handwriting Analysis Putting it to work for you, Jaico Books, Delhi (1994)
13. Vacca John R; Computer Forensics- Computer crime scene Investigation, Firewall Medial, An imprint of Laxmi Pub(2002)
14. Casey Eoghan; Handbook of computer crime Investigation, Forensic Tools & Technology- Academic Press (2002)
15. Morris (2000); Forensic Handwriting Identification (fundamental concepts & Principals)
16. Madinger J & Zalopany AR; (1999) -Money Laundering- CRC Press
17. Manning CA;(1999) -Financial Investigation & Forensic Accounting- CRC Press.
18. Brewster F.; Contested Documents and Forgeries,” The Eastern Law House, Kolkata.
19. Quirke AJ; Forged Anonymous & Suspect Documents- 1930, Reorge Rontledge & Sons Ltd, London.
20. Katherine M Kappenhaver, CDE-Forensic Document Examination-Humana Press.
21. Jan Seaman Kelly & Brian S Lindblom-Scientific Examination of Questioned Documents-Taylor Francis Group London and New York.
22. Malcom Coulthard & Alison Johnson-An Introduction to Forensic Linguistics- Taylor & Francis Group London and New York.
23. Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Third Edition: Forensic Science, Computers, and the Internet by Eoghan Casey. 24. Computer Forensics, Third Edition: Computer Crime Scene Investigation by John R Vacca