Forensic science:CAREER PROSPECTS

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

Due to increase in crime rate and criminals, the scope of Forensic Science is increased. There are lots of job opportunities in the field of Forensic Science

JOB PROFILES

Below are some of the top designations in the field of forensic science:

  • Crime Analyst
  • Legal counselors
  • Forensic Expert
  • Forensic Scientist
  • Forensic Odontologist
  • Teacher / Professor
  • Handwriting Expert
  • Crime Scene Investigator
  • Forensic Engineer
  • Forensic Architects
  • Forensic Psychiatrist
  • Crime Reporter
  • Forensic Toxicologist
  • Forensic Serologist

Top Recruiting Areas

  • Colleges and Universities,
  •  Police department,
  •  Research Laboratories,
  •  Hospitals,
  •  Pharmaceutical Companies, etc.

Some places where one can find a job are given below:

  • Intelligence Bureau (IB)
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
  • Central Govt. Forensic Sciences Labs
  • Law Firms
  • Private Detective Agencies
  • Hospitals
  • Police Department
  • Quality Control Bureau
  • Universities
  • Banks
  • Defense/Army

Salary

After completing a qualification in forensic science, the starting salary is between Rs. 3 Lac to Rs. 4 Lac per annum. With experience, professionals can earn Rs 6 Lac to Rs 8 Lacs per year.

In abroad, you can earn the average salary of $55,040 per year.

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Eligibility For Forensic Science Courses (For Ph.D. IN FORENSIC SCIENCE)

By @forensicfield

INFORMATION

In this discipline Professionals apply their knowledge of science to analyze the evidence found at a crime scene and to assist the legal system. An analysis could involve anything from an object at the crime scene to fingerprints, body fluids, bones, saliva, DNA traces, trace evidences, digital data, etc.

WHAT IS IT ABOUT?

Ph.D. in Forensic Science is a Research level program the duration of which ranges from 2 years to 5 years.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA

Students seeking admission to Ph.D. in Forensic Science course must hold a Master’s degree in relevant discipline or equivalent from a recognized university. Candidates have to clear the cut off marks set by the respective College/ University to get admission to this course.

Who Should Opt?

Good academic skills with fundamental knowledge of various fields of science is necessary.  Some others skills are given below:

✔Good hold on science subjects,

✔Logical and Independent mind,

✔High degree of accuracy and attention to detail in one’s nature of work,

✔Observation and Scientific skills,

✔Patience and concentration,

✔Ability to work under pressure for long hours,

✔Team spirit, strong written and spoken communication skills.

Here follows a list of some universities and colleges in India that offer Ph.D. in Forensic science.

SrNo. Name of the Institute Location Average Course Fee (in INR)
1. Gujarat Forensic Sciences University Gujarat 60,000/-
2. Amity University Noida 79,000/-
3.Lovely Professional University Jalandhar 89,000/-
 4.Galgotias University Greater Noida 1,10,000/-
5.Dr. Hari Singh Gour University Madhya Pradesh
6. Shri. Vaishnav Vidyapeeth Vishwavidyalaya Pune 69,000/-
7. Punjab University Punjab 72,000/-
8.   Institute of Forensic Science New Delhi

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Eligibility For Forensic Science Courses (M.SC.)

By @forensicfield

INFORMATION

In this discipline Professionals apply their knowledge of science to analyze the evidence found at a crime scene and to assist the legal system. An analysis could involve anything from an object at the crime scene to fingerprints, body fluids, bones, saliva, DNA traces, trace evidences, digital data, etc.

WHAT IS IT ABOUT?

M.Sc. in Forensic Science is a 2-year full-time post-graduate course which is divided into 4 semesters.

M.Sc. in Forensic Science is designed for both graduate students and forensic practitioners.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA

  • Minimum eligibility criteria for M.Sc. in Forensic Science course may vary across institutes.
  • Primarily, the criteria include:
  • Bachelor’s degree in science/engineering/ pharmacy/ medicine, obtained from a recognized university.
  • A minimum aggregate score of 50-60% at the level of graduation (vary across institutes).

ADMISSION PROCESS

  • The merit list for admission to the course is usually prepared on the basis of the candidate’s performance in a relevant qualifying examination and entrance exam. General weightage is given to both the score obtained in the entrance exam, and to the score obtained in the last qualifying examination.
  • The round of written test is often followed by subsequent rounds of Group Discussion and Personal Interview.(depends on universities)
  • Who Should Opt?
  • Good academic skills with fundamental knowledge of various fields of science is necessary.  Some others skills are given below:
  • Good hold on science subjects,
  • Logical and Independent mind,
  • High degree of accuracy and attention to detail in one’s nature of work,
  • Observation and Scientific skills,
  • Patience and concentration,
  • Ability to work under pressure for long hours,
  • Team spirit, strong written and spoken communication skills.

Here follows a list of some universities and colleges in India that offer M.Sc. Forensic science.

Sr. No. NAME OF INSTITUTE CITY AVERAGE ANNUAL FEES
1. Lovely Professional University Jalandhar INR 1,98,000
2. Lovely Professional University Chandigarh INR 1,98,000
3. SGT University Gurgaon INR 3,00,000
4. Amity University Gurgaon INR 1,89,000
5. Chandigarh University Chandigarh INR 1,70,000
6. Galgotias University Greater Noida INR 1,01,000
7. Gujarat University Ahmedabad INR 30,000
8. GD Goenka University Gurgaon INR 1,40,000
9. Banaras Hindu University Varanasi INR 1,60,000
10. Maharshi Dayanand University Rohtak INR 20,274
11. Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow INR 1,01,000
12. Maharaja Agrasen University Solan INR 1,50,000
13. Kurukshetra UniversityKurukshetra INR 1,04,000

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Eligibility For Forensic Science Courses (B.Sc.)

by @forensicfield

INFORMATION

In this discipline Professionals apply their knowledge of science to analyze the evidence found at a crime scene and to assist the legal system. An analysis could involve anything from an object at the crime scene to fingerprints, body fluids, bones, saliva, DNA traces, trace evidences, digital data, etc.

Bachelor of Sciences (B.Sc.)

B.Sc. In forensic science is a 3-year graduate course which involves the application of scientific knowledge to the investigation of crimes.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA

The basic criterion of eligibility needed to be met for admission to the course is a Higher Secondary (10+2) or equivalent qualification from a recognized educational Board, with Physics, Chemistry and Biology or Math as main subjects and a minimum aggregate score of 55%.

ADMISSION PROCESS

Admission to the course is based on the candidate’s percentage at the 10+2 level (percentage varies with universities). Institutes offering the course admit students based on whether they meet the minimum, set cut-off scores at the 10+2 level. A few institutes conduct entrance test for admission at their own level.

Who Should Opt?

Good academic skills with fundamental knowledge of various fields of science is necessary.  Some others skills are given below:

  • Good hold on science subjects,
  • Logical and Independent mind,
  • High degree of accuracy and attention to detail in one’s nature of work,
  • Observation and Scientific skills,
  • Patience and concentration,
  • Ability to work under pressure for long hours,
  • Team spirit, strong written and spoken communication skills.

Here follows a list of some universities and colleges in India that offer B.Sc. Forensic science.

SrNo. Name City Average Fees in INR (Per Year)
1. Amity University Noida 75,000/-
2. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad 32,700/-
3. Bundelkhand University Jhanshi 63,150/-
4. Dr. Hari Singh Gour University Sagar 10,610/-
5. Galgotias University Noida 50,000/-
6. Lovely Professional University Jalandhar 2,52,000/-
7. Mangalayatan University Aligarh 1,20,000/-
8. Raja Bahadur Venkat Rama Reddy Women’s College Hyderabad 36,000/-
9. Swami Vivekananda University Sagar 1,21,000/-
10. Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Prayagraj 1,21,000/-
11. Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad 1,87,000/-

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Y-STRs

By @forensicfield

Introduction

A Y-STR is short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome. Y-STRs are often used in forensics, paternity, and genealogical DNA testing. Y-STRs are taken specifically from the male Y chromosome.

Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), also known as microsatellites and simple sequence repeats play a valuable and important role in forensic molecular biology.

What is Y-chromosome?

It contains approximately 60 Mb of DNA, about 95% of which, termed the non-recombining region of the Y (NRY), does not undergo sexual recombination and is present only in males, being inherited from the father by his sons.

Y-STRs Markers

Unique segments of DNA at certain pre-determined locations along the Y-chromosome of each man.
Each of these locations is called a microsatellite or YSTR marker , and each one of the markers that Family Tree DNA examines has been given a name, such as DYS 458 or DYS 385a.

Why Y-STRs is use?

✔ Involvements of Males in ¦-
– 80% of all violent crime.
– 95% of all sex offenses.
✔ When trying to determine the genetic profile of the male donor in a male/female DNA admixture (when F/M > 20, often >1000) and autosomal STR analysis fails (is not informative) or not possible.
✔ Determination of number of semen donors.

What Can be Tested for extraction of DNA?

  • Sexual assault swabs,
  • Clothing,
  • Hairs,
  • Items that have been touched or handled (ex: weapons such as guns, knives, etc.),
  • Ligatures used for strangulation,
  • Stains collected from an object or surface,
  • Fingernails, etc.

Areas of Use in Y-chromosome Testing::

Future of Y Chromosome Testing:

💡 Commercial kits make Y-STRs more available and more compatible between laboratories
💡 More accurate likelihoods of Y-STR profiles can be calculated
💡 Both lineage analysis and Forensics can use Y chromosome markers
💡 Additional markers are being tested
💡 New population studies are being done

Y-STR AS PROOF OF RAPE WHEN SPERM CELLS CANNOT BE FOUND:

Identification of spermatozoa is the biological evidence most often sought in the examination of rape victims. Absence of spermatozoa usually terminates biological investigations, and the victim’s testimony can therefore be contested. We assessed the utility and reliability of PCR amplification using Y-chromosomal STR polymorphisms in specimens taken from female victims of sexual assault with negative cytology.

Advantages of Y-STR

1. The primary value of the Y-chromosome in forensic DNA testing is that it is found only in males.
2. Using Chromosome Y-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can improve the chances of detecting low levels of the perpetrator’s DNA in a high background of a female victim’s DNA.
3. Y-chromosome tests have also been used to verify amelogenin Y-deficient males.
4. The same feature of the Y-chromosome that gives it an advantage in forensic testing, namely maleness, is also its biggest limitation.

Limitations of Y-STR

Y-STR testing cannot uniquely identify an individual.
All men from the same lineage will have the same Y-STR profile.

Case studies

Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis.
Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters.

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How To Search Fingerprints On Crime Scene

By @forensicfield

The search for possible fingerprint needs a systematic and narrowly approach to the suspected areas.

✔Fingerprints can frequently be seen by holding the flashlight🔦at low angles so that the surface is observed under oblique lighting.

✔Observation under white light may reveal latent fingerprints that can be photographed without any further treatment.

✔In some cases, latent print can often be detected using episcope coaxial illumination. The print is, therefore, visible as dark ridges against a light background.

✔A magnifying lens🔎 is useful to locate and judge the quality of the fingerprints.

EAR PRINT

By @forensicfield

Introduction

In recent years, Earprint👂 analysis has been developed in the field of Forensic Science with the aim of converting it into an identification tool. The possibility of using the external ear👂 as a tool for establishing the unique identity of individuals was first recognized by Bertillon who included the same in the system he developed in 1893. Since then several studies on its range of peculiarities in morphology have emerged especially to correlate it with the field of personal identification.

👂The ear has been used as a tool for human identification since the late 19th century when Alphonse Bertillon utilized the ear as one of the eleven anthropometric measurements for his manual system of identifying individuals.
👂An ear print is a two-dimensional reproduction of the auricle, which can make contact with various surfaces and can produce a print like a rubber stamp.

STRUCTURE OF THE EAR

DIFFERENT SHAPES OF EAR (LOBULE)

A Tool For Personal Identification

✔As early as in eighteenth century the complex shape of ear had attracted the attention of early Physiologists “Lavater”.
✔On the basis of the various ear features he tried to classify the behavioral nature of human.
✔The earliest reference to individuality of external ear was made by Bertillon who mentioned in his book that “it is almost impossible to meet with two ears which are identical in all their parts.”
✔He had formulated a system based on anthropometry to prevent repeat offenders from concealing their identity.

REASONS TO CHOOSE EAR RECOGNITION OVER OTHER TECHNOLOGY

a) Ear biometrics are convenient and because their acquisition tends to be perceived as less invasive.
b) It is accurate and allows for high enrolment and verification rates.
c) It does not require an expert to interpret the comparison result.
d) It can use with existing cameras and image capture devices will work with no problems.

EAR PRINTS AS AN EVIDENCE

✅Burglars often listen at windows and doors, leaving an ear print behind, which, just like a finger print, can be used to trace them.
✅In one out of every twenty burglaries the burglar leaves an earprint behind, at least this seems to be the case in and around Leiden.

HOW TO DEVELOP LATENT EAR PRINTS

Three methods were used to develop ear prints

1. POWDERING METHOD
Ear prints developed with Powdering method

2. NINHYDRIN METHOD
Ear prints developed with ninhydrin

3. IODINE FUMING METHOD
Ear prints developed with Iodine fuming.

VALIDITY OF THE EARPRINT AS FORENSIC EVIDENCE

👂The forensic validity of the ear print is based on the possibility of identifying a particular ear print as belonging to a particular subject.
👂In practice this can serve to rule out a subject as a suspect, to increase the evidence against a particular suspect or even, if there are no suspects, to search for suspects in future databases.

The Limitations of The Method

👉Surface ,on which print is made.
👉Angle at which the ear was applied to the surface.
👉This may be due to the manner in which the prints are made.
👉Clarity.

CASE STUDY – 1

👂Mark Dallagher, who was convicted of murder in West Yorkshire in 1998. He was alleged to have left impressions of his ears on a dining room window before murdering Dorothy Woods, 94, in Huddersfield.
👂Ear print evidence was pioneered by Inspector Cor van der Lugt, of the Dutch police.
Police found two prints on a window, and sent them to Dutch Policeman Van Der Lugt.
👂Inspector Van Der Lugt, compared the prints of Dallagher’s ears with those of eight people taken at random. Killer’s prints matched with print found on the window “exactly”.

CASE STUDY – 2

👂A 26-year-old Georgian thief has been found responsible for up to 80 robberies in the French city of Lyon after leaving his ear prints behind at some 80 robberies.
👂He targeted student housing and would press his ear up to the door to check that residents had left, leaving behind the incriminating evidence.
👂The man was caught red-handed in February, a police source said. But subsequently investigations showed his ear prints on the front doors of the scene of some 80 similar thefts in the central French city.

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Ear print (easy notes)

Importance of Fingerprint Identification

By @forensicfield

Introduction:

Fingerprint identification is one of the most important evidence or tool because of their uniqueness. It is used by the criminal investigators from centuries. Fingerprints of a person’s do not change with time. There are lots of important of fingerprints in forensics / Criminal Investigation. It help investigators to link one crime scene to another involving the same person. Fingerprint also used to track a criminal’s record so that their history of crime or proceedings can be found easily. Some of importance of fingerprints are given below to know why are they actually used 👇::

🕴Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification.

🕴The science of fingerprint identification stands out among all other forensic sciences to provide accurate identification of criminals.

🕴No two fingerprints have ever been found alike in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons.

🕴Fingerprints are the basis for criminal history foundation at every police agency on earth.

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Fingerprints: An Introduction

Fingerprints- An Introduction

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

Everything we touched, leave behind our unique impression on it, which is Our fingerprints.

No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints.

Fingerprint identification also known as “Dactyloscopy”.

Fingerprints are the tiny ridges, whorls and valley patterns on the tip of each fingers. They develop from pressure on a baby’s tiny, developing fingers in the womb.

CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS

🧤By FRANCIS GALTON
A well-known British scientist sir Francis Galton published his first book on fingerprint in 1892. His important work include method for classification for fingerprint which are divided into three groups-
a. Arch
b. Loop
c. Whorl

🧤 By WILLIAM J. HERSHEL
While working for the East India Company in Bengal, India, Sir William James Herschel first used fingerprints on native contracts. After a decade, he had accumulated a file of fingerprints.

🧤 By EDWARD HENRY
Henry Classification of Fingerprinting was accepted as common practice throughout England and its territorial holdings and in the United States.
Under the henry system, fingerprints divided into two classes:
•Those which are given numerical value. (whorls and composites).
•Those which doesn’t give numerical value. (loops and arches).

🖐 All patters are divided as follows:

The henry classification system assigns each finger A number according to the order in which it is located in the hand, beginning with the right thumb as number 1 and ending with the left pinky as number 10.
• The system also assigns a numerical value to fingers that contain a whorl pattern; fingers 1 and 2 each have a value of 16,
• Fingers 3 and 4 = 8,
• Fingers 5 and 6 = 4,
• Fingers 7 and 8 = 2,
• Final two fingers = 1.
• Fingers with a non-whorl pattern, such as an arch or loop pattern, have a value of zero.
• The sum of the even finger value is then calculated and placed in the numerator of a fraction.
• The sum of the odd finger values is place in the denominator.
• The value of 1 is added to each sum of the whorls with the maximum obtainable on either side of the fraction begin 32.
• Thus, the primary classification is a fraction between 1/1 to 32/32, where 1/1 would indicate no whorl patterns and 32/32 would mean that all fingers had whorl patterns.

🧤 By JUAN VUCETICH
Vucetich is credited with the first positive criminal identification as, in 1892, he was able to extract a set of prints off a door and thus identify a woman as the culprit in a double homicide.

✴ CHARACTERISTICS OF FINGERPRINT

🖐 Class Characteristics
Class characteristics are the characteristics that narrow the print down to a group but not an individual.

The Three Fingerprint Class Types Are;
1. Arches:
✔Arches are the simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other. No deltas are present.
✔About 5 % of the world’s populations have arch patterns.

Arch pattern

2. Loops:
✔Loops must have one delta and one or more ridges that enter and leave on the same side. These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius and ulna bones.
✔About 60-65 % of the world’s populations have loop patterns.

Loop pattern

3. Whorls:
✔Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas.
✔About 30-35 % of the world’s populations have whorls patterns.

Whorl Pattern

👍 Individual characteristics:
👉Individual characteristics are those characteristics that are unique to an individual.
👉They are tiny irregularities that appear within the friction ridges and are referred to as Galton’s details.

Individual Characteristics of Fingerprint

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Fingerprints-An Introduction

History of Fingerprints

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

The Science of fingerprint identification stands out among all other Forensic Science techniques and methods for many reasons. The science of fingerprint identification or Dactylography began nearly 4,000 years ago. Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification.
Lots of research have been done in this field to find accurate method and technique from many years.

  • Everything we touched, leave behind our unique impression on it, which is Our fingerprints.
  • Fingerprints are the tiny ridges, whorls and valley patterns on the tip of each fingers. They develop from pressure on a baby’s tiny, developing fingers in the womb.
  • Fingerprint identification also known as “Dactyloscopy”.
  • No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints.

HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTS

✌The science of fingerprint identification stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons. Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for fingerprints having replaced other methods of establishing the identities of persons reluctant to admit previous arrests. Nearly 4,000 years ago identification of fingerprint also known as DACTYLOGRAPHY, began in the “Fertile Crescent,” (the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present day Iraq).

👉 Here is a brief history of the evolution of fingerprints:

🖐 King Hammurabi (1955-1913 BC) used finger seals on contracts and law officers of the day were authorized to secure fingerprints of arrested persons.

🖐 Chinese historian Kia Kung-Yen wrote of fingerprints used in an older method of preparing contracts In AD 650, nearly 600 years before.

🖐 An law book written by Yung-Hwui of the same period listed that, in a divorce decree the husband had to sign the document with his fingerprint.

🖐 AD 1400sPersia -The 14th century Persian book “Jaamehol-Tawarikh” (Universal History), attributed to Khajeh Rashiduddin Fazlollah Hamadani (1247-1318), includes comments about the practice of identifying persons from their fingerprints.

🖐 BC 200sChina – Clay seals bearing friction ridge impressions were used during both the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC – 220 AD). Chinese records from the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) include details about using handprints as evidence during burglary investigations.

🖐 1788Mayer – German anatomist and doctor J. C. A. Mayer wrote the book Anatomical Copper-plates with Appropriate Explanations containing drawings of friction ridge skin patterns. Mayer was the first to declare that friction ridge skin is unique.

🖐 1823Jan Evangelista Purkinje – In 1823, Jan Evangelista Purkinje, anatomy professor at the University of Breslau, published his thesis discussing nine fingerprint patterns.

🖐 1858William Herschal – While working for the East India Company in Bengal, India. The English first began using fingerprints in July of 1858, when Sir William James Herschel, Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India, first used fingerprints on native contracts. Sir William Herschel’s private conviction that all fingerprints were unique to the individual, as well as permanent throughout that individual’s life, inspired him to expand their use.

🖐 1863Paul-Jean Coulier – Professor Paul-Jean Coulier, of Val-de-Grâce in Paris, published his observations that (latent) fingerprints can be developed on paper by iodine fuming. He further explained, how to preserve (fix) such developed impressions . He also mentioned the potential for identifying suspects’ fingerprints by use of a magnifying glass.

🖐 1877 Thomas Taylor – American microscopist Thomas Taylor proposed that finger and palm prints left on any object might be used to solve crimes.

🖐 1880Henry Faulds – Dr. Henry Faulds, a Scottish doctor in Tokyo, Japan publishes article in “Nature” Faulds wrote in Nature magazine that when bloody finger marks or impressions on clay, glass, etc. exist, they may lead to the scientific identification of criminals.

🖐 1882Alphonse Bertillion – 1882 – Alphonse Bertillion, a French anthropologist, devised method of body measurements to produce a formula used to classify individuals. This formula involves taking the measurements of a persons body parts, and recording these measurements on a card known as the Bertillion System.

🖐 1882Thompson – In 1882, Gilbert Thompson of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico, used his own thumb print on a document to help prevent forgery. This is the first known use of fingerprints in the United States.

🖐 1883 Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) – In Mark Twain’s book, “Life on the Mississippi”, a murderer was identified by the use of fingerprint identification. In a later book, “Pudd’n Head Wilson”, there was a dramatic court trial including fingerprint identification.

🖐 1891 – Juan Vucetich – Juan Vucetich, Argentine Police Official, Initiated the fingerprinting of criminals. He began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types. At first, Vucetich included the Bertillon System with the files.

🖐 1892- Sir Francis Galton – Sir Francis Galton, a British Anthropologist and cousin to Charles Darwin, publishes the first book on fingerprints. In his book, Galton identifies the individuality and uniqueness of fingerprints.

🖐 1892Eduardo Alvarez – At Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1892, Inspector Eduardo Alvarez made the first criminal fingerprint identification. He was able to identify Francisca Rojas, a woman who murdered her two sons and cut her own throat in an attempt to place blame on another. Her bloody print was left on a door post, proving her identity as the murderer.

🖐 1897Haque & Bose – Haque and Bose are the two Indian fingerprint experts credited with primary development of the Henry System of fingerprint classification (named for their supervisor, Edward Richard Henry).

🖐 1900 – E.R. Henry – The United Kingdom Home Secretary Office conducted an inquiry into “Identification of Criminals by Measurement and Fingerprints.” Mr. Edward Richard Henry appeared before the inquiry committee to explain the system published in his recent book “The Classification and Use of Fingerprints.“ The committee recommended adoption of fingerprinting as a replacement for the relatively inaccurate Bertillon system of anthropometric measurement.

🖐 1901 – The Fingerprint Branch at New Scotland Yard (Metropolitan Police) was created in July 1901 using the Henry System of Fingerprint Classification.

🖐 1902 – First Systematic Use Of Fingerprints In The U.S. By The New York Civil Service Commission For Testing. Dr. Henry P. Deforrest Pioneers U.S. Fingerprinting.

🖐 1903The William West – Upon investigation, there were indeed two men who looked very similar. Their names were William and Will West. Their Bertillon measurements were close enough to identify them as the same person. According to prison records publicized years later, the West men were apparently identical twin brothers and each had a record of correspondence with the same immediate family relatives. Their respective fingerprints were taken, compared, and they bore no resemblance. This unique case established the value of fingerprint identification in this country.

🖐 1904 – 1904 the St. Louis, Missouri, Police Department was the first agency to set up a fingerprint bureau. The complete file of some 810,000 records was turned over to the newly formed Identification Division of the F.B.I.

🖐 1905 -U.S. Military Adopts The Use Of Fingerprints – Police Agencies Began To Adopt The Use Of Fingerprints U.S. Department Of Justice Forms The Bureau Of Criminal Identification In Washington, DC To Provide A Centralized Reference Collection Of Fingerprint Cards.

🖐 1907 – U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Criminal Identification moves to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary where it is staffed at least partially by inmates. U.S. Navy begins using fingerprints.

🖐 1908 – U.S. Marine Corps begins using fingerprints. Many of these agencies began sending copies of their fingerprint cards to the National Bureau of Criminal Identification, which was established by the International Association of Police Chiefs.

🖐 1910Frederick Brayley – In 1910, Frederick Brayley published the first American textbook on fingerprints, “Arrangement of Finger Prints, Identification, and Their Uses.”

🖐 1911 – Dec. 21, 1911, The Illinois State Supreme Court Upheld The Admissibility Of Fingerprint Evidence Concluding That Fingerprints Are A Reliable Form Of Identification.

🖐 1915Inspector Harry H. Caldwell of the Oakland, California Police Department’s Bureau of Identification wrote numerous letters to “Criminal Identification Operators” in August 1915, requesting them to meet in Oakland for the purpose of forming an organization to further the aims of the identification profession. In October 1915, a group of twenty-two identification personnel met and initiated the “International Association for Criminal Identification” In 1918, the organization was renamed the “International Association for Identification“ (IAI) due to the volume of non-criminal identification work performed by members.

🖐 1917 – First Palm print identification is made in Nevada. The bloody palm print, found on a letter left at the scene of a stage coach robbery and murder of its driver, was identified to Ben Kuhl.

🖐 1918- Edmond Locard – Edmond Locard Wrote That If 12 Points (Galton’s Details) Were The Same Between Two Fingerprints, It Would Suffice As A Positive Identification.

🖐 1924 – In 1924, An Act Of Congress Established The Identification Division Of The FBI. The Iacp’s National Bureau Of Criminal Identification And The US Justice Department’s Bureau Of Criminal Identification Consolidated To Form The Nucleus Of The FBI Fingerprint Files.

🖐 1940s – By the end of World War II, most American fingerprints experts agreed there was no scientific basis for a minimum number of corresponding minutiae to determine an “identification” and the twelve point rule was dropped from the FBI publication, “The Science of Fingerprints.”

🖐 1946 – By 1946, the FBI had processed 100 million fingerprint cards in manually maintained files; and by 1971, 200 million cards. With the introduction of Automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) technology, the files were later split into computerized criminal files and manually maintained civil files.

🖐 1973 – The International Association for Identification Standardization Committee authored a resolution stating that each identification is unique and no valid basis exists to require a minimum number of matching points in two friction ridge impressions to establish a positive identification. The resolution was approved by members at the 1973 annual conference.

🖐 1974 The Fingerprint Society – In 1974, four employees of the Hertfordshire (United Kingdom) Fingerprint Bureau contacted fingerprint experts throughout the UK and began organization of that country’s first professional fingerprint organization, the National Society of Fingerprint Officers. The organization initially consisted of only UK experts, but quickly expanded to international scope and was renamed The Fingerprint Society in 1977.

🖐 1977 – At New Orleans, Louisiana on 1 August 1977, delegates to the 62nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Identification (IAI) voted to establish the world’s first certification program for fingerprint experts. Since 1977, the IAI’s Latent Print Certification Board has proficiency tested thousands of applicants, and periodically proficiency tests all IAI Certified Latent Print Examiners (CLPEs).

🖐 1980 – First computer data base of fingerprints was developed, which came to be known as the Automated Fingerprint Identification System, (AFIS). In the present day, there nearly 70 million cards, or nearly 700 million individual fingerprints entered in AFIS

🖐 1995 – At the International Symposium on Latent Fingerprint Detection and Identification, conducted by the Israeli National Police Agency, at Neurim, Israel, June, 1995, the Neurim Declaration was issued.

🖐 2012 – INTERPOL’s Automated Fingerprint Identification System repository exceeds 150,000 sets of fingerprints for important international criminal records from 190 member countries. Over 170 countries have 24 x 7 interface ability with INTERPOL expert fingerprint services

🖐 2016America’s Largest Databases – The largest AFIS repository in America is operated by the Department of Homeland Security’s US Visit Program, containing over 120 million persons’ fingerprints, many in the form of two-finger records. NGI has more than 60 million individual computerized fingerprint records (both criminal and civil applicant records).

🖐 The Unique Identification Authority Of India Is The World’s Largest Fingerprint (And Largest Multi-modal Biometric) System Using Fingerprint, Face And Iris Biometric Records.
🖐 India’s Unique Identification Project Is Also Known As Aadhaar, A Word Meaning “The Foundation” In Several Indian Languages.
🖐 Aadhaar Is A Voluntary Program, With The Goal Of Eventually Providing Reliable National Id Documents To Most Of India’s 1.2 Billion Residents.
🖐 Since 2010, The Authority Has Issued More Than 1.07 Billion (More Than 107 Crore) Aadhaar Numbers.

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History of Fingerprints