PHYSICAL EVIDENCES

Sources:A Closer Look On Forensic Science written by Archana Singh

🔦WHAT IS PHYSICAL EVIDENCE?

✔Physical evidence is any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or perpetrator.
✔Anything can be physical evidence which can connect crime scene to criminal.
✔“In simple words to count physical evidences cannot be possible.”

🔦Types of Physical Evidences

1.BODY MATERIAL:
Body fluids or materials found at a crime scene might include ::
🔘In case of poison main parts of body such as Liver, Gall bladder, Brain, Kidney, Small intestine, Pancreas, Uterus, Heart and Lungs should be analyzed.
🔘Blood, Semen, Saliva and Vomit in dry or liquid state.
🔘Hair, Nails, Skeleton, Bone.

2. BOTANICAL MATTER:
🥦PLANTS
🍇FRUITS
🍉SEEDS
🌿LEAFS
🌴WOOD, etc.

3. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE:
🚫EXPLOSIVE- any object that has a residue of an explosive is useful.
⚫ALCOHOL
⭕PAINT
💊DRUGS, etc.

4. WEAPONS:
✔Firearms
✔Pistol
✔Revolver
✔Gun
✔Bullet
📍Cover, etc.
🔑Other arms, such as;
🗡Knives
⛏Axe
🏹Arrow
⚔Sword
🔨Hammer
✂️Scissors
🏉Stone, etc.

5. DISPUTED DOCUMENTS:

Examinations and comparisons conducted by document examiners can be diverse and may involve the following:

  • Typewriters, photocopiers, printers, fax machines.
  • Handwriting (cursive / printing) and signatures.
  • Alterations, additions, erasures, obliterations.
  • Indentation detection and/or decipherment.
  • Cheque writers, rubber stamps, markers.
  • Physical matching.
  • Ink, pencil, paper

6. PETROLEUM SUBSTANCE:
⚫Any type of petroleum substance which is likely related to criminal act.
Such as kerosene oil, petrol, etc.

7. TOOL MARKS:
⭕Tool mark as any impression, cut, gouge, or abrasion caused by a tool coming into contact with another.
⭕They consist of small, commonly microscopic, indentations, ridges, and irregularities present on the tool itself. For example, the tip of a screwdriver is never perfectly flat, but shows small ridges along its edge.

8. IMPRESSION:
✴Finger prints
✴Tier marks
✴Footprints
✴Shoeprints etc.

9. FIBERS AND TEXTILE:
🧤In Many Cases, Clothes And Rope Are Used In Many Forms.
📜Natural fibers
📜Artificial fibers
📜Threads
📜Ropes
📜Clothes

10. SOIL:
🔅Sand
🔅Clay
🔅Slit
🔅Peat
🔅Loam
🔅Chalk
🔅Which stick with Tiers, Mudgaurd, Shoes, Clothes, etc.

11. GLASS:
🔎Pieces of glass ,such as
🔎Any Window/ Glass Door
🔎Glass bottle
🔎Watch
🔎Spectacles

12. OBJECTS OF CRIMINAL:
📃IDENTITY CARD
📒DIARY

13. OTHER EVIDENCE:
◾Any other substances found on crime scene not described before in previous slides should be considered of this category.
◾For ex after collision of new building or bridge, sample of debris is physical evidence.
◾Things which have numbers. Like, engine, chesis, etc.

🔦Information that can be obtained from Physical Evidence

📍CORPUS DELICTI:
⚀The Latin term corpus delicti refers to the principle that there must be some proof that a crime has been committed before a person can be convicted that crime.
⚀Corpus delicti literally means body of crimes.

📍Identification of suspect:
Fingerprints are valuable evidence to identify and individualize suspect.

📍Linking suspect with victim:
At the time of crime blood, hair, fiber, etc. can be exchange between suspect and victim which establishes connection.

📍Linking of suspect with scene of crime:
Fingerprints, shoeprint or footprint, blood, semen, fiber, hair, tool marks, tier impression, bullet, soil ,etc. are evidences which can establish links from suspect to scene of crime.

📍Providing investigative leads:
Physical evidences leads police officers in criminal investigation.

📍Information about modus operandi:
Criminals, specially habitual criminals have same type of crime manner. Same criminal pattern of behavior helps to caught criminals.

📍Verification of statement:
Statement of person(victim, witness, criminal) can be tested After examination and reconstruction of physical evidence.

🔦Nature of Physical Evidence

A. Identification by class characteristics-
Every item has a measurable features of an item that indicate a restricted group source based on design factors determined prior to manufacture.
✔Physical evidences first identify by its class characteristics.

B. Comparison and individualism-
Marks on an object produced by the random imperfection or irregularities on the surfaces of the tools used to manufacture the object.
✔Individual characteristic confirm the object.

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